Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Higher educated people see the less educated as more blameworthy for their situation than the poor and the working class

Educationism and the irony of meritocracy: Negative attitudes of higher educated people towards the less educated. Toon Kuppens et al. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,

•    Higher educated people show education-based intergroup bias.
•    Less educated people do not show education-based intergroup bias.
•    Less educated are seen as more blameworthy for their situation than the poor.
•    Less educated are seen as more blameworthy for their situation than working class.
•    Less educated people have negative view of their own education group.

Abstract: Social psychology has studied ethnic, gender, age, national, and other social groups but has neglected education-based groups. This is surprising given the importance of education in predicting people's life outcomes and social attitudes. We study whether and why people evaluate education-based in-groups and out-groups differently. In contrast with popular views of the higher educated as tolerant and morally enlightened, we find that higher educated participants show education-based intergroup bias: They hold more negative attitudes towards less educated people than towards highly educated people. This is true both on direct measures (Studies 1–2) and on more indirect measures (Studies 3–4). The less educated do not show such education-based intergroup bias. In Studies 5–7 we investigate attributions regarding a range of disadvantaged groups. Less educated people are seen as more responsible and blameworthy for their situation, as compared to poor people or working class people. This shows that the psychological consequences of social inequality are worse when they are framed in terms of education rather than income or occupation. Finally, meritocracy beliefs are related to higher ratings of responsibility and blameworthiness, indicating that the processes we study are related to ideological beliefs. The findings are discussed in light of the role that education plays in the legitimization of social inequality.

Keywords: Educationism; Attribution; Intergroup bias; Education-based groups

A categorization of enjoyable emotions

A categorization of enjoyable emotions. Laura E. Graham, Andrew L. Thomson, Jeanne Nakamura, Irene A. Brandt & Jason T. Siegel. The Journal of Positive Psychology,

Abstract: Responding to burgeoning scholarship examining discrete positive emotions, the overarching goals of the current review are to provide a summary of 28 enjoyable emotions and to offer an initial classification of these emotions into families. The families of discrete enjoyable emotions, many proposed for the first time, are as follows: (1) Self-praising emotions (authentic pride, fiero, naches, feeling respected), (2) other-praising emotions (admiration, elevation, gratitude, inspiration), (3) past-oriented emotions (forgiveness, nostalgia, relief), (4) future-oriented emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, courage, determination, hope), (5) hazardous emotions (lust, schadenfreude, hubristic pride), (6) affectionate emotions (love, attachment love, tenderness, positive empathy), (7) arousal-defined emotions (euphoria, serenity), (8) violation-elicited emotions (amusement, awe, curiosity, positive surprise).This review describes how the 28 enjoyable emotions were selected, outlines the classification process generating the families of enjoyable emotions, provides a brief summary of current scholarship on each emotion, and concludes with a discussion of fertile future directions.

Keywords: Emotion, positive emotion, enjoyable emotion, discrete emotion

Swearing increases strength and power performance

Effect of swearing on strength and power performance. Richard Stephens, David K. Spierer, Emmanuel Katehis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise,

•    Shows that swearing can increase performance of a task of physical power.
•    Shows that swearing can increase performance of a task of physical strength.
•    Does not find any evidence that autonomic arousal may underlie these effects.


Objectives: Swearing aloud increases pain tolerance. The hypothesis that this response may be owed to an increase in sympathetic drive raises the intriguing question as to whether swearing results in an improvement in strength and power.

Design: Employing repeated measures designs, we evaluated the effect of repeating a swear word v. a neutral word on strength and power during anaerobic and isometric exercise through two experiments.

Method: Experiment #1 (n = 29) employed the Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT). Experiment #2 (n = 52) employed an isometric handgrip test.

Results: Greater maximum performance was observed in the swearing conditions compared with the non-swearing conditions for WAnT power (Experiment #1; dz = 0.618, p = 0.002) and hand grip strength (Experiment #2; dz = 0.962, p < 0.001). However, swearing did not affect cardiovascular or autonomic function assessed via heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure and skin conductance.

Conclusions: Data demonstrate increased strength and power performance for swearing v. not swearing but the absence of cardiovascular or autonomic nervous system effects makes it unclear whether these results are due to an alteration of sympathovagal balance or an unknown mechanism.

Keywords: Power; Isometric grip; Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT); Autonomic function; Swearing

We believe that fake news have greater effects on out-group members than on ouselves or our group mates

Third person effects of fake news: Fake news regulation and media literacy interventions. S. Mo Janga, Joon K. Kimb. Computers in Human Behavior,

Research Highlights
•    Individuals showed third-person perception concerning the influence of fake news.
•    Social undesirability, partisan identity, and efficacy were positive predictors of third-person perception.
•    Third-perseon perception leads to support for media literacy intervention to combat fake news.
•    Third-person perception leads to rejection of media regulation approach.

Abstract: Although the actual effect of fake news online on voters’ decisions is still unknown, concerns over the perceived effect of fake news online have prevailed in the US and other countries. Based on an analysis of survey responses from national samples (n = 1,299) in the US, we found a strong tendency of the third-person perception. That is, individuals believed that fake news would have greater effects on out-group members than themselves or in-group members. Additionally, we proposed a theoretical path model, identifying the antecedents and consequences of the third-person perception. The results showed that partisan identity, social undesirability of content, and external political efficacy were positive predictors of the third-person perception. Interestingly, our findings revealed that third-person perception led to different ways of combating fake news online. Those with a greater level of third-person perception were more likely to support the media literacy approach but less likely to support the media regulation approach.

Keywords: fake news; third-person effect; fake news regulation; media literacy; partisan identity