Friday, October 2, 2020

Studies found that condom-use discounting is elevated in high-risk substance use populations & is sensitive to context (e.g., partner desirability); administering cocaine & alcohol increased condom-use discounting

Johnson, M. W., Strickland, J. C., Herrmann, E. S., Dolan, S. B., Cox, D. J., & Berry, M. S. (2020). Sexual discounting: A systematic review of discounting processes and sexual behavior. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Oct 2020. https://doi.org/10.1037/pha0000402

Rolf Degen's take: https://twitter.com/DegenRolf/status/1312038923296804865

Abstract: Behavioral processes underlying sexual behavior are important for understanding normal human functioning and risk behavior leading to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This systematic review examines delay and probability discounting in human sexual behavior through synthesis of 50 peer-reviewed, original research articles. Sixteen studies focusing exclusively on monetary delay discounting found small effect size positive correlations with sexual risk behaviors. Eleven studies examined delay or probability discounting of sexual behavior itself using tasks that varied duration, frequency, or quality of sex to determine value. Results show delay and uncertainty of sex causes systematic decreases in value. These studies also show consistent medium effect size relationships between sexual discounting measures and sexual health and substance use, supporting utility above and beyond monetary discounting. Twenty-three studies have modeled clinically relevant decision-making, examining effects of delay until condom availability and STI contraction probability on condom use. Observational and experimental designs found condom-use discounting is elevated in high-risk substance use populations, is sensitive to context (e.g., partner desirability), and is more robustly related to sexual risk compared with monetary discounting or condom use decisions when no delay/uncertainty was involved. Administering cocaine, alcohol, and, for some participants, methamphetamine increased condom-use discounting with minimal effect on monetary discounting or condom use when no delay/uncertainty was involved. Reviewed studies robustly support that sexual behavior is highly dependent on delay and probability discounting, and that these processes strongly contribute to sexual risk. Future research should exploit these systematic relationships to design behavioral and pharmacological approaches to decrease sexual risk behavior.



Social media use seems to hinder rather than enhance an individual’s learning about politics, because it fosters the perception that one no longer needs to actively seek news in order to stay informed (i.e., news-finds-me perception)

Probing the Mechanisms Through Which Social Media Erodes Political Knowledge: The Role of the News-Finds-Me Perception. Sangwon Lee. Mass Communication and Society, Oct 1 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2020.1821381

Rolf Degen's take: https://twitter.com/DegenRolf/status/1311978431819722753

ABSTRACT: This study examines the causal effects of social media use on political knowledge as well as the underlying mechanisms through which such an effect occurs. The findings suggest that social media use hinders rather than enhances an individual’s learning about politics, because social media use fosters the perception that one no longer needs to actively seek news in order to stay informed (i.e., news-finds-me perception), and this in turn may have an adverse effect on an individual’s learning about politics. However, those who use traditional forms of media to a substantial degree to complement their news consumption via social media are less negatively affected than those who do not.


Spiritual training intends to reduce self‐enhancement, but the self‐enhancement motive is so powerful & deeply ingrained that it hijacks methods intended to transcend the ego, boosting superiority feelings

An Exploration of Spiritual Superiority: The Paradox of Self‐Enhancement. Roos Vonk  Anouk Visser. European Journal of Social Psychology, October 1 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2721

Rolf Degen's take: https://twitter.com/DegenRolf/status/1311888149015126017

Abstract: Spiritual training is assumed to reduce self‐enhancement, but may have the paradoxical effect of boosting superiority feelings. It can, thus, operate like other self‐enhancement tools and contribute to a contingent self‐worth that depends on one’s spiritual accomplishments. In three studies (N=533, N=2223, N=965), a brief measure of spiritual superiority showed good internal consistency and discriminant validity. As predicted, it was distinctly related to spiritual contingency of self‐worth, illustrating that the self‐enhancement function of spirituality is similar to other contingency domains. It was correlated with self‐esteem and, more strongly, with communal narcissism, corroborating the notion of spiritual narcissism. Spiritual Superiority scores were consistently higher among energetically trained participants than mindfulness trainees and were associated with supernatural overconfidence and self‐ascribed spiritual guidance. Our results illustrate that the self‐enhancement motive is powerful and deeply ingrained so that it can hijack methods intended to transcend the ego and, instead, adopt them to its own service.


Check also Petersen, Michael Bang, and Panagiotis Mitkidis. 2019. “A Sober Second Thought? A Pre-registered Experiment on the Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Political Tolerance.” PsyArXiv. October 20. https://www.bipartisanalliance.com/2019/10/analyses-of-data-from-pilot-experiment.html

‘I Do Not Exist’: Pathologies of Self Among Western Buddhists. Judith Pickering. Journal of Religion and Health, June 2019, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp 748–769. https://www.bipartisanalliance.com/2019/07/i-do-not-exist-pathologies-of-self.html

Mindfulness not related to behavioral & speech markers of emotional positivity (or less negativity), interpersonally better connected (quality or quantity), or prosocial orientation (more affectionate, less gossipy or complaining)Dispositional mindfulness in daily life:

Deanna M. Kaplan, L. Raison, Anne Milek, Allison M. Tackman, Thaddeus W. W. Pace, Matthias R. Mehl. PLOS, https://www.bipartisanalliance.com/2018/11/mindfulness-not-related-to-behavioral.html


Those who fear being single generally do not have difficulty attracting prospective partners; is this so because daters cannot detect fear of being single, or because detected fear of being single does not hinder desirability?

Detectability and Desirability of Fear of Being Single in Online Dating Profiles. Stephanie S. Spielmann  Kevin P. Gahman. Journal of Personality, September 30 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12597

Abstract

Objective: Those who fear being single generally do not have difficulty attracting prospective partners. The present research explores whether this is because daters cannot detect fear of being single, or because detected fear of being single does not hinder desirability.

Method: In Study 1 (N=235, 60% women, Mage=36.9), participants created dating profiles then rated the desirability of profiles depicting high vs. low fear of being single (high narcissism control). In Study 2 (N=176, 69% women, Mage=21.4), participants evaluated fear of being single and desirability of actual profiles.

Results: Differences in fear of being single were detectable. Furthermore, detecting higher fear of being single predicted lower romantic desirability. Desirability ratings were due, in part, to estimating lower physical attractiveness (Study 2). Perceivers’ own fear of being single moderated effects, such that those higher in fear of being single were not deterred by higher fear of being single.

Conclusions: Fear of being single may be detectable when online dating, but desirability of detected fear of being single varies depending on perceiver traits and may be driven in part by misperceptions of physical attractiveness. This research sheds light on challenges for those who fear being single as they attempt to attract mates.