Friday, August 21, 2020

Although some support exists that sleep is more beneficial for certain kinds of memories, the majority of studies does not support such an effect

Davidson, Per, Peter J├Ânsson, Ingegerd Carlsson, and Edward Pace-Schott. 2020. “Does Sleep Selectively Strengthen Certain Memories over Others? A Critical Review of the Literature.” PsyArXiv. August 21. doi:10.31234/osf.io/umn9r

Abstract: Sleep has been found to have a beneficial effect on memory consolidation. It has furthermore frequently been suggested that sleep does not strengthen all memories equally. The aim of this literature review was to examine the studies that have measured whether sleep selectively strengthens certain kinds of declarative memories more than others, depending on such factors as emotion, reward, test-expectancy or different instructions during encoding. The review of this literature revealed that although some support exists that sleep is more beneficial for certain kinds of memories, the majority of studies does not support such an effect. A second aim of this review was to examine which factors during sleep that have been found to selectively benefit certain memories over others, with a special focus on the often-suggested claim that rapid eye movement sleep primarily consolidates emotional memories. The review of this literature revealed that no sleep variable has been reliably found to be specifically associated with the consolidation of certain kinds of memories over others.


From 2009... Circumcision and semen displacement: Circumcised men were more likely to have cheated on their female partners and to think that their partners had cheated on them

From 2009... Circumcision and semen displacement. Sara M. Ressing, Rebecca L. Burch. Northeastern Evolutionary Psychology Society. 3rd Annual Conference, 2009. https://neepsociety.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/NEEPS2009PROGRAM.pdf

Abstract: This study intended to examine differences in semen displacement behaviors between circumcised and uncircumcised males in a college population. Circumcised men were more likely to have cheated on their female partners and to think that their partners had cheated on them. However, reactions to these suspicions, such as mateguarding, physical violence or sexual violence did not differ. Both types of men reacted to suspected infidelity with increased thrusting speed, depth and vigor. While uncircumcised men routinely had intercourse in the missionary position, circumcised men were more likely to engage in lateral entry and female superior positions and in anal sex. Although both men and women report similar thrusting depth, speed and vigor, circumcised men and their partners reported a significant decrease in thrusting behaviors after orgasm. Uncircumcised men may continue thrusting for a longer period after orgasm. While this would presumably result in more displacement, after orgasm it would serve as self semen displacement.


One of the foundational mechanisms of the artwork can be meaningfully conceptualized as a cognitively rich interaction which, by design, informs & exploits the mind’s predictive system

Suspended Reason and Tom Rutten. 2020. “Predictive Hermeneutics.” PsyArXiv. August 11. doi:10.31234/osf.io/tg8ym

Abstract: Recently, cognitive scientists like Clark (2016) and Hohwy (2013), alongside computational neuroscientist Karl Friston (2006, 2013) have conceptualized the mind as a hierarchical prediction system, at levels varying from the “merely” sensory to the highly conceptual. Here, we extend this thesis in order to understand the hermeneutic process as it relates to textual and artistic encounters. We argue that one of the foundational mechanisms of the artwork, as it is contemporarily conceived, can be meaningfully conceptualized as a cognitively rich interaction which, by design, informs and exploits the mind’s predictive system. We further show how this mechanism, and a predictive framework more generally, help explain a host of traditional literary, aesthetic, and art historical values, including ambiguity, defamiliarization, and reversal.


§4 Characteristics of schema-subversive art
In §3, we theorized the schema-subversive (both forced
and opportunistic) and schema-baring functions of art
objects within the predictive framework introduced in §1
and 2. Here, in §4 and 5, we speculate on other possible
dynamics between art and an audience’s schemas.

4.1 Art as superstimulus
Following Hurley et al. (2011) on humor , we propose that
art is, among other functions, a kind of higher-level
cognitive superstimulus culturally evolved to target
humans’ innate predictive structure. Agent arousal
correlates with the properties of high perceived relevance
or precision as a Bayesian input, derived, respectively,
from the work’s (perceived) topicality and the author’s
(perceived) credibility. Like a joke, which is tailored to
guide listeners to a specific interpretation of events only to
pull the rug out (Hurley, Dennett, and Adams 2011), art is
tailored to target existing compressions in a subject’s
schemas. Where classical art often reifies or activates
familiar patterns, e.g. patterns used for object recognition
(Evans 2019), contemporary works often exploit and
subvert regularity observable in the real word. In either
case, the artwork provides an intense encounter between a
subject and schema, on one side, and the art object with its
highly compression-prone or compression-breaking
information on the other.

4.2 Truthiness and adherence to model
In an art encounter, our mind updates its inferential models
about the world with respect to the work’s perceived
accuracy, an assessment made by the model itself. The
observer’s schema acts as a “check” or arbitrator on its
own incorporation of the artworks’ worldview (dynamics
and concepts); when the cartography of the work is too
implausible in the eyes of an apprehending schema, it may
be dismissed entirely. This is to say that concepts learned
directly from personal experience, and indirectly from
outside sources, are used to assess the likelihood of a
work’s worldview as conveyed through its components.

The artwork’s “truthiness” as estimated by the viewer can
be understood as its precision, or reliability (Clark 2016).
In this way the schema can be understood as a gatekeeper
to its own revision: only stimulus surpassing some level of
intelligibility and precision for a viewer will be able to
interact with the viewer’s schema and incite revision. One
consequence is that information which fits closely with an
existing schema but poorly with a ground-truth reality is
perceived by that schema as more, rather than less, likely
to be the case.
Art that presents worldviews or models of reality that are
congenial with the observer’s can be termed resonant; art
that is presented by a source who we deem authoritative is
termed credible.

Romantic and Sexual Relationships with Adult Partners Among Minor-attracted Persons

Mundy, Crystal, Hailee Lewis, and Jan Cioe. 2020. “Romantic and Sexual Relationships with Adult Partners Among Minor-attracted Persons.” PsyArXiv. August 21. doi:10.31234/osf.io/b3uhn

Abstract: Limited research has been conducted on minor-attracted persons’ romantic and sexual relationships with adult partners. This study examined reasons for such relationships among 128 self-identified minor-attracted persons. Secondary analyses explored whether age sexual orientation (i.e., degree of attraction to minors and/or adults) can be conceptualized as a continuum. We also explored whether age sexual orientation impacted reasons for engaging in sex with adult partners. The results suggest that age sexual orientation varies widely among minor-attracted persons and can be quantified using a modified Kinsey Scale. Minor-attracted persons endorsed both non-sexual and sexual reasons for engaging adult-partnered relationships. Minor-attracted persons with more exclusive attraction to minors were less likely to engage in sex for pleasure reasons and less likely to engage in romantic relationships due to love towards their adult partner; this contrasted with minor-attracted persons with less exclusive attraction to minors. These findings support the heterogeneity of minor-attracted persons, including differential reasons for engaging in adult-partnered relationships. Professionals should seek to understand the nature of their clients’ relationships and age sexual orientation to determine whether such factors are relevant. Professionals can then support clients in their search for meaningful relationships.

Check also Relationship between paraphilic interests, sex, and sexual and life satisfaction in non-clinical samples: Those with paraphilic interests rarely felt negatively affected
Exploring the relationship between paraphilic interests, sex, and sexual and life satisfaction in non-clinical samples. Crystal L. Mundy, Jan D. Cioe. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, May 13, 2019.