Friday, June 24, 2022

From 2020... All over the world, people overestimate how negatively their political opponents view their side

Ruggeri, Kai, Bojana Većkalov, Lana Bojanić, Thomas L. Andersen, Sarah Ashcroft-Jones, Nélida Ayacaxli, Paula Barea Arroyo, et al. 2020. “The General Fault in Our Fault Lines.” OSF Preprints. September 8. doi:10.31219/

Abstract: A pervading global narrative suggests that political polarisation is increasing in the US and around the world. Beliefs in increased polarisation impact individual and group behaviours regardless of whether they are accurate or not. One driver of polarisation are beliefs about how members of the out-group perceive us, known as group meta-perceptions. A 2020 study by Lees and Cikara in US samples suggests that not only are out-group meta-perceptions highly inaccurate, but informing people of this inaccuracy reduces negative beliefs about the out-group. Given the importance of these findings for understanding and mitigating polarisation, it is essential to test to what extent they generalise to other countries. We assess that generalisability by replicating two of the original experiments in 10,207 participants from 26 countries in the first experiment and 10 in the second. We do this by studying local group divisions, which we refer to as fault lines. In line with our hypotheses, results show that the pattern found in the US broadly generalises, with greater heterogeneity explained by specific policies rather than between-country differences. The replication of a simple disclosure intervention in the second experiment yielded a modest reduction in negative motive attributions to the out-group, similar to the original study. These findings indicate first that inaccurate and negative group meta-perceptions are exhibited in a large number of countries, not only the US, and that informing individuals of their misperceptions can yield positive benefits for intergroup relations. The generalisability of these findings highlights a robust phenomenon with major implications for political discourse worldwide.

Men tended to report more problematic pornography use than women; sexual minority men and women tend to report more PPU than heterosexual men and women

Understanding Differences in Problematic Pornography Use: Considerations for Gender and Sexual Orientation. Nicholas C.Borgogna et al. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, June 23 2022.


Background: While preliminary research suggests non-heterosexual men and women view more pornography than their heterosexual counterparts, few studies have examined how problematic use differs across sexual and gender identity groups.

Aim: We sought to test measurement invariance across popular measures of problematic pornography use (PPU) and examine mean PPU differences across heterosexual men, non-heterosexual men, heterosexual women, and non-heterosexual women.

Methods: We used 3 large archival datasets to examine psychometrics/group differences on the Brief Pornography Screen (BPS; N = 1,439), Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS; N = 5,859), and Cyber Pornography Use Inventory-4 (CPUI-4; N = 893).

Outcomes: Most PPU scales/subscales demonstrated acceptable fit, and non-heterosexual men and women tended to report more PPU than heterosexual men and women (though exceptions were evident).

Results: Confirmatory factor analyses revealed good fit across each group and instrument, with exception to sexual minority women on the CPUI-4. Each instrument demonstrated at least metric invariance between groups, with exception to one item between heterosexual and sexual minority men on the CPUI-4. Mean differences suggested that sexual minority men and women tend to report more PPU than heterosexual men and women, though several exceptions were evident depending on the PPU dimension. Men tended to report more PPU than women, though exceptions were also evident. Effect sizes ranged from large-to-non-significant depending on PPU dimension.

Clinical Implications: Researchers and clinicians should consider sexual orientation, gender, and PPU dimension when addressing PPU concerns.

Strengths & Limitations: A primary strength of this study is the use of multiple large samples, meaning our results are likely highly generalizable. However, this study is limited in that it only examined sexual orientation groups broadly and did not account for non-cisgender identities.

Conclusions: The BPS, PPUS, and CPUI-4 are all appropriate tools to measure PPU depending on researcher and clinician needs.

Key Words: Problematic Pornography UseSexual OrientationGenderMeasurementCompulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder

Check also Are Playboy (and girl) Norms Behind the Relationship Problems Associated with Pornography Viewing in Men and Women? Nicholas C. Borgogna, Tracey Smith, Ryon C. McDermott & Matthew Whatley. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, May 7 2020.

Overall, rates of mental disorders within clinical, counseling, and school-psychology faculty and trainees were similar to or greater than those observed in the general population

Only Human: Mental-Health Difficulties Among Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychology Faculty and Trainees. Sarah E. Victor et al. Perspectives on Psychological Science, June 22, 2022.

Abstract: How common are mental-health difficulties among applied psychologists? This question is paradoxically neglected, perhaps because disclosure and discussion of these experiences remain taboo within the field. This study documented high rates of mental-health difficulties (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) among faculty, graduate students, and others affiliated with accredited doctoral and internship programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology. More than 80% of respondents (n = 1,395 of 1,692) reported a lifetime history mental-health difficulties, and nearly half (48%) reported a diagnosed mental disorder. Among those with diagnosed and undiagnosed mental-health difficulties, the most common reported concerns were depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Participants who reported diagnosed mental disorders endorsed, on average, more specific mental-health difficulties and were more likely to report current difficulties than were undiagnosed participants. Graduate students were more likely to endorse both diagnosed and undiagnosed mental-health difficulties than were faculty, and they were more likely to report ongoing difficulties. Overall, rates of mental disorders within clinical, counseling, and school-psychology faculty and trainees were similar to or greater than those observed in the general population. We discuss the implications of these results and suggest specific directions for future research on this heretofore neglected topic.

Keywords: clinical psychology, mental health, psychopathology, mental illness, prevalence