Tuesday, October 2, 2018

Narcissism appears to be positively correlated with short-term mating (e.g., promiscuity), suggesting that narcissism gets pushed into subsequent generations via promiscuous activity, but narcissists are not physically attractive at the unadorned level

Did Narcissism Evolve? Nicholas S. Holtzman. Handbook of Trait Narcissism pp 173-181, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-92171-6_19

Abstract: This chapter, like each chapter in the edited book, focuses on narcissism (arrogance, exploitativeness, self-admiration, etc.). My goal is to entertain and evaluate the possibility that narcissism evolved. It is important to point out that, by way of background, just because something is morally suspect does not mean that it didn’t evolve; indeed, bad things can evolve. But despite narcissism being heritable, there is no direct evidence that narcissism is caused by specific genes, indicating that the evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. Through which pathways—such as mating pathways—does narcissism get passed onto the next generation? Narcissism appears to be positively correlated with short-term mating (e.g., promiscuity), suggesting that narcissism gets pushed into subsequent generations via promiscuous activity. The idea that narcissism evolved via short-term mating, however, is currently questionable, mainly because narcissists are not physically attractive at the unadorned level; in theory, narcissists should be attractive at the unadorned level because short-term mating situations select for raw attractiveness. All told, the prospect of narcissism having evolved is in a precarious position as of this writing. Several gaps in the literature lead to a call for more molecular genetic research and collaborative, large-scale behavioral research.

Keywords: Evolution Evolutionary psychology Genes Mating Narcissism Short-term mating

While risky sexual behavior & negative psychological correlates are associated with sexting & younger populations, the same might not be true for a nonuniversity-based, older adult sample

Sexting Leads to “Risky” Sex? An Analysis of Sexting Behaviors in a Nonuniversity-Based, Older Adult Population. Joseph M. Currin, Randolph D. Hubach, Carissa Sanders & Tonya R. Hammer. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, Volume 43, 2017 - Issue 7, Pages 689-702. https://doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2016.1246390

Abstract: Since few researchers have analyzed sexting behaviors in nonuniversity-based adult samples, we sought to determine if sexting is associated with negative psychological correlates and risky sexual behaviors in this population. Analysis of individuals who indicated having vaginal or anal sex in the past 12 months and who identified as single (n = 377) showed that condomless sex is independent of sexting behaviors. Results for those in committed relationships (n = 374) and having had vaginal or anal sex in the past 12 months also demonstrated condomless sex and sexting behaviors were not related. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and relational health were predictive of sexting behaviors in adults in committed relationships. These findings demonstrate that while risky sexual behavior and negative psychological correlates are associated with sexting and younger populations, the same might not be true for a nonuniversity-based, older adult sample.

A reduction in the corporate income tax burden encourages adoption of the C corporation legal form; improved capital reallocation increases the overall productive efficiency in the economy and therefore reduce unemployment by up to 7pct

Corporate Income Tax, Legal Form of Organization, and Employment. Daphne Chen, Shi Qi, and Don Schlagenhauf. American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics. Oct 2018, Vol. 10, No. 4: Pages 270-304. https://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/mac.20140103

Abstract: A dynamic stochastic occupational choice model with heterogeneous agents is developed to evaluate the impact of a corporate income tax reduction on employment. In this framework, the key margin is the endogenous entrepreneurial choice of the legal form of organization. A reduction in the corporate income tax burden encourages adoption of the C corporation legal form, which reduces capital constraints on firms. Improved capital reallocation increases the overall productive efficiency in the economy and therefore expands the labor market. Relative to the benchmark economy, a corporate income tax cut can reduce the nonemployment rate by up to 7 percent. (JEL E24, H25, H32, J23, J24)

Sharing political rumors: Associated with "chaotic" motivations to "burn down" the entire established democratic "cosmos," not because those are viewed to be true but because they are believed to mobilize the audience against disliked elites

A "Need for Chaos" and the Sharing of Hostile Political Rumors in Advanced Democracies. Michael Bang Petersen, Mathias Osmundsen, Kevin Arceneaux. 114 th Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 30 - September 2, 2018. https://osf.io/zsdce

Abstract: The circulation of hostile political rumors (including but not limited to false news and conspiracy theories) has gained prominence in public debates across advanced democracies. Here, we provide the first comprehensive assessment of the psychological syndrome that elicits motivations to share hostile political rumors among citizens of democratic societies. Against the notion that sharing occurs to help one mainstream political actor in the increasingly polarized electoral competition against other mainstream actors, we demonstrate that sharing motivations are associated with "chaotic" motivations to "burn down" the entire established democratic "cosmos". We show that this extreme discontent is associated with motivations to share hostile political rumors, not because such rumors are viewed to be true but because they are believed to mobilize the audience against disliked elites. We introduce an individual difference measure, the "Need for Chaos", to measure these motivations and illuminate their social causes, linked to frustrated status-seeking. Finally, we show that chaotic motivations are surprisingly widespread within advanced democracies, having some hold in up to 40 percent of the American national population.

German middle-aged homosexual men: 5.5% only had sexual experiences with women, and 10.3% recently had vaginal intercourse; of this, only 1/4 ever had sexual experience with a man, and 3/4 had only engaged in sexual activity with a woman

Goethe VE, Angerer H, Dinkel A, et al. Concordance and Discordance of Sexual Identity, Sexual Experience, and Current Sexual Behavior in 45-Year-Old-Men: Results From the German Male Sex-Study. Sex Med 201;X:XXX-XXX. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esxm.2018.08.001

Abstract

Introduction: Discordance of various aspects of sexual orientation has been mostly studied in young adults or in small samples of heterosexual men. Studies focusing on concordance and discordance of aspects of sexual orientation in representative samples of middle-aged men including homosexual men are scarce.

Aim: To investigate concordant and discordant sexual behavior in 45-year-old German men with a special focus on homosexual identified men.

Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were collected within the German Male Sex-Study. Participants were 45-year-old Caucasian males from the general population. Men self-reported on sexual identity, sexual experience, and current sexual behavior. Associations between sexual identity, experience, and behavior were analyzed using the chi-square test.

Main Outcome Measure: Associations of sexual identity with sexual experience and behavior in a community-based sample of men, and discordance of sexual identity and behavior especially in the subgroup of homosexual men.

Results: 12,354 men were included in the study. 95.1% (n = 11.749) self-identified as heterosexual, 3.8% (n = 471) as homosexual, and 1.1% (n = 134) as bisexual. Sexual identity was significantly associated with sexual experience and behavior. 85.5% of all men had recently been sexually active, but prevalence of sexual practices varied. In hetero- and bisexuals, vaginal intercourse was the most common sexual practice, whereas oral sex was the most common in homosexuals. A discordance of sexual identity was especially found in homosexual men: 5.5% of homosexuals only had sexual experiences with women, and 10.3% of homosexuals recently had vaginal intercourse. In this latter subgroup, only one-quarter ever had sexual experience with a man, and three-quarters had only engaged in sexual activity with a woman.

Conclusion: Sexual identity is associated with differences in sexual experience and behavior in German middle-aged men. A considerable proportion of homosexual identified men live a heterosexual life.

Having a political discussion with an out-group member led to more positive moral and affective evaluations of out-group members than having a discussion with an in-group member

Does Having a Political Discussion Help or Hurt Intergroup Perceptions? Drawing Guidance From Social Identity Theory and the Contact Hypothesis. Robert M. Bond, Hillary C. Shulman, Michael Gilbert. Bond Vol 12 (2018), http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/9033

Abstract: This experiment (N = 238) tested propositions from social identity theory alongside the intergroup contact hypothesis to examine whether having a political discussion with an in-group (politically similar) or out-group (politically different) member affects subsequent evaluations of these social groups. Although several experimental results provide strong support for the antisocial predictions proposed by social identity theory, ultimately it was found that having a political discussion with an out-group member led to more positive moral and affective evaluations of out-group members than having a discussion with an in-group member. This result is consistent with the contact hypothesis and supports the notion that political discussions across party lines can produce positive social outcomes.

Keywords: contact hypothesis, intergroup relations, political discussions, political polarization, social identity theory

Selection for low male voice pitch is generally assumed to occur because it is a valid cue of formidability, but data suggest this is wrong

Sensory Exploitation, Sexual Dimorphism, and Human Voice Pitch. David R. Feinberg, Benedict C. Jones, Marie M. Armstrong. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2018.09.007

Abstract: Selection for low male voice pitch is generally assumed to occur because it is a valid cue of formidability. Here we summarize recent empirical challenges to this hypothesis. We also outline an alternative account in which selection for low male voice pitch is a byproduct of sensory exploitation.

High physical attractiveness is related to low public self-consciousness, whereas low physical attractiveness is related to high public self-consciousness

Does beauty matter?: Exploring the relationship between self-consciousness and physical attractiveness. Wei-Lun Chang. Kybernetes, https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/K-12-2017-0494

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between self-consciousness and physical attractiveness from a psychological perspective, examining the relationship of physical attractiveness with the three dimensions of self-consciousness.

Design/methodology/approach: The research involved investigating the relationship between self-consciousness and physical attractiveness, focusing on how the three self-consciousness dimensions (i.e., private self-consciousness, public self-consciousness and social anxiety) affected physical attractiveness. Clustering techniques using self-organizing maps of data mining and decision trees were used in this study. The primal concept of clustering entails grouping unsorted and disorganized raw data and arranging data with similar properties into clusters. Classification primarily involves establishing classification models according to the category attributes of existing data. These models can be used to predict the classes of new data and determine interdata relationships and data characteristics.

Findings: Public self-consciousness was most strongly related to physical attractiveness, whereas the other two dimensions exhibited no obvious relationship to physical attractiveness. It may be concluded that people with higher physical attractiveness draw attention from others more easily and are more likely to be evaluated positively, and that they thus tend to be more confident in front of others and less likely to care about the opinions of others. Alternatively, perhaps people with lower public self-consciousness care less about how others view them and have the courage to express themselves, which signifies confidence and increases their physical attractiveness.

Practical implications: This research investigated the importance of self-consciousness that may apply to recruitment in practice. People with low public self-consciousness may have high confidence and efficiency. People have low social anxiety may not be nervous or anxious in public and easy to speak to strangers. This kind of employees are appropriate for the jobs involving team work and interaction such as public relations. Hence, companies can apply our findings to search appropriate employees except the first impression of appearance.

Originality/value: The results revealed that high physical attractiveness is related to low public self-consciousness, whereas low physical attractiveness is related to high public self-consciousness. Good-looking people tend to attract attention from others. The relationship between private self-consciousness and physical attractiveness is non-significant. The relationship between social anxiety and physical attractiveness is non-significant.

Keywords: Decision trees, Self-Organizing maps, Physical attractiveness, Self-consciousness

Why Suburban Districts Need Public Charter Schools Too. Emily Langhorne. Progressive Policy Institute

Why Suburban Districts Need Public Charter Schools Too. Emily Langhorne. Progressive Policy Institute, Oct 2 2018, https://www.progressivepolicy.org/publications/why-suburban-districts-need-public-charter-schools-too/

On November 8, 2016, while the rest of the world anxiously awaited the outcome of the U.S. presidential election, a subset of voters with a keen interest in education had their eyes on Massachusetts. This was the day Bay Staters would vote on Ballot Question 2, a proposal to raise the state’s cap on public charter schools by up to 12 new schools per year.

Massachusetts is home to some of the highest performing charter schools in the country, with especially impressive gains at schools serving urban, low-income and minority students. In Boston, one of the eight districts in the state to have reached its cap on charter schools, students at charters learn the equivalent of an extra year of math and reading each year, when compared to their peers with similar demographics and past test scores at the city’s traditional public schools.1The local school district, Boston Public Schools (BPS), enrolls about 53,000 students in a city of about 77,000 students. Currently, public charters enroll only about 10,000 students, but there are more than 32,000 children on waitlists for these schools.

Greedy individuals find a variety of transgressions more acceptable and justifiable as well as indicate that they have more often engaged in a variety of transgressions; were more likely to take a bribe and also preferred higher bribes

Greedy bastards: Testing the relationship between wanting more and unethical behavior. Terri G.Seuntjens, Marcel Zeelenberg, Nielsvan de Ven, Seger M.Breugelmans. Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 138, 1 February 2019, Pages 147-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.09.027

Abstract: Greed is often seen as immoral. Although the assumption that greed elicits unethical behavior is widespread, there is surprisingly little empirical research testing this relationship. We present a series of three studies investigating the association between greed and unethical behavior, using different methodologies and samples from the USA, The Netherlands, and Belgium. Study 1 (3 samples, total N = 3413) reveals that more greedy individuals find a variety of transgressions more acceptable and justifiable as well as indicate that they have more often engaged in a variety of transgressions compared to less greedy individuals. Study 2 (N = 172) replicated these findings in an incentivized behavioral laboratory study where participants decided to accept a bribe or not. Greedy people were more likely to take a bribe and also preferred higher bribes. Study 3 (N = 302) examined a potential process relating greed to unethical behavior. Greedy people were more likely to transgress because they found the positive outcomes associated with the transgression more desirable, and therefore displayed lower self-control. Implications for general theories of greed and morality are discussed.

Recycle more, waste more? When recycling efforts increase resource consumption

Recycle more, waste more? When recycling efforts increase resource consumption. Baolong Ma, Xiaofei Li, Zhongjun Jiang, Jiefan Jiang. Journal of Cleaner Production, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.063

Abstract: Governments spend significant amounts of money to promote recycling lifestyles to the public; however, they cannot maximize the beneficial effects of recycling without avoiding its potential negative consequences. In this research, we empirically examine the effects of recycling efforts on subsequent resource usage by analyzing the online survey data of 356 participants in China. Based on partial least squares-structural equation modeling, the results show that (1) recycling efforts have a positive effect on resource consumption, which suggests that engaging in recycling leads individuals to use significantly more resources in the future; (2) the positive effect of recycling efforts on resource consumption is mediated by environmental self-identity and feelings of pride; and (3) consideration of future consequences negatively moderates the effects of recycling efforts on environmental self-identity and on feelings of pride. That is, consideration of future consequences mitigates the positive effects of recycling efforts on resource consumption. The paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretical and managerial implications of our findings.

Genetic factors contribute substantially to the variations of various types of narcissism, stability of narcissism as well as its associations with other personalities, & the distinctions between different types of narcissism; environments (mostly non-shared by family members) also play important roles

The Etiology of Narcissism: A Review of Behavioral Genetic Studies. Yu L. L. Luo. Huajian Cai. In Handbook of Trait Narcissism pp 149-156, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-92171-6_16

Abstract: A great deal of research has delved into the etiology of narcissism via behavioral genetic methodologies in recent years. These studies have established that genetic factors contribute substantially to (1) the variations of various types of narcissism, (2) the stability of narcissism as well as its associations with other personalities, and (3) the distinctions between different types of narcissism. In the meantime, environments (mostly non-shared by family members) also play important roles in these situations. Together, these findings shed light on the origins of narcissism. Future studies may further examine how genetic and environmental factors interplay with each other in influencing narcissism and even what gene(s) is associated with narcissism.

Cognitive reflection was positively correlated with rational (selfish) behavior in dictator games; reflective dictators)kept more money for themselves than those who achieved lower scores on the CRT (altruistic, impulsive dictators)

Cognitive Reflection Test in Predicting Rational Behavior in the Dictator Game. Monika Czerwonka, Aleksandra Staniszewska, Krzysztof Kompa. In International Conference on Computational Methods in Experimental Economics CMEE 2017: Problems, Methods and Tools in Experimental and Behavioral Economics pp 301-312, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-99187-0_22

Abstract: Altruism and behavioral impact on economic decisions became the center of the interest for experimental and behavioral economy. The literature widely reports the results of variety types of dictator games (DG) and cognitive reflection tests (CRT). There is a broad research on donated sum, anonymity of the receiver and dictators’ position (giving vs. taking) in dictator games. Separately research on the CRT evolves from 3 questions to 7 questions variant. However, there is an evident gap in the literature for data that combines these two tools (DG and CRT) in one setup. In this study, we extend existing research on the relationship between cognitive performance on the CRT and dictator decisions taking into account such factors as donated sum, anonymity of the receiver and dictators’ position (giving vs. taking). The main goal is to find out if the cognitive reflection test (CRT) helps to predict rational (or selfish) behavior in a DG. In our investigation, we asked 511 participants to respond to 6 types of dictator games and CRT test. For statistical analysis of the received results, we applied correlation, descriptive statistics, the t-student test and the Mann–Whitney test. Our results show that cognitive reflection was positively correlated with rational (selfish) behavior in DGs. Those dictators who scored high on the CRT (reflective dictators) kept more money for themselves than those who achieved lower scores on the CRT (altruistic, impulsive dictators). Our results confirm an inequity aversion attitude among altruistic, impulsive dictators and selfish, reflective dictators.

Children Use Probability to Infer Other People’s Happiness; & they understand that our happiness with an outcome depends on whether a better or worse outcome was initially more likely

Children Use Probability to Infer Other People’s Happiness. Tiffany Doan, Ori Friedman, Stephanie Denison. CogSci 2018 Proceedings, https://mindmodeling.org/cogsci2018/papers/0314/0314.pdf

Abstract: The ability to infer other people’s emotions is an important aspect of children’s social cognition. Here, we examined whether 4- to 6-year-olds use probability to infer other people’s happiness. Children saw a scenario where a girl receives two desired and two undesired gumballs from a gumball machine and were asked to rate how the girl feel s about this outcome. Children either saw the gumballs come from a machine that had mostly desired gumballs or a machine that had mostly undesired gumballs. Five- and 6-year-olds rated the girl as being happier when the gumballs came from a machine that had mostly undesired gumballs. Four-year-olds, on the other hand, rated the girl’s happiness similarly regardless of whether the machine held mostly desired or undesired gumballs. These findings show that by the age of 5, children use probability to infer happiness. Further, they demonstrate that children understand that our happiness with an outcome depends on whether a better or worse outcome was initially more likely.

Keywords: emotion attribution; happiness; probability; social cognition; cognitive development

Followership evolved as a strategy to solve a range of cooperation and coordination problems in groups (e.g., collective movement, peacekeeping); individuals who lack the physical, psychological, or social capital to be leaders themselves are more likely to emerge as followers

The nature of followership: Evolutionary analysis and review. Nicolas astardoz, Mark Vugt. The Leadership Quarterly, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2018.09.004

Abstract: From an evolutionary perspective, followership is puzzling because it is not clear why individuals would relinquish their autonomy and set aside their personal goals to follow those of another individual, the leader. This paper analyzes followership from an evolutionary perspective and advances three main conclusions that are not yet part of the leadership literature. First, followership evolved as a strategy to solve a range of cooperation and coordination problems in groups (e.g., collective movement, peacekeeping). Second, individuals who lack the physical, psychological, or social capital to be leaders themselves are more likely to emerge as followers. Third, followership styles, behaviors, and engagement result from (a) variations in the relative pay-offs that accrue to followers vis-à-vis their leader, (b) the adaptive goals pursued by followers, (c) the adaptive challenges that select for different followership styles, and (d) the prevailing leadership style. Together, these conclusions have several implications for followership theory, research, and practice.

Those who believe in heaven and those who believe in hell tend to have negative attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide; the fear of hell, more so than the reward of heaven, may lead people to have negative attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide

Heaven, hell, and attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide. Shane Sharp. Journal of Health Psychology, https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105318800831

Abstract: Using data from the 2007 Baylor Religion Survey, I evaluate whether beliefs in heaven and hell are associated with attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide. I find that those who believe in heaven and those who believe in hell tend to have negative attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic variables. I also find that the belief in hell mediates the effect of the belief in heaven on attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide, suggesting that the fear of hell, more so than the reward of heaven, may lead people to have negative attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide.

Keywords: afterlife, heaven, hell, physician-assisted suicide

The dark triad of personality `predicts how eudaimonic narratives (stories dealing with purpose in life, the human condition, and human virtue) are perceived: inauthentic & corny

Repelled by Virtue? The Dark Triad and Eudaimonic Narratives. Markus Appel, Michael D Slater, Mary Beth Oliver. Media Psychology, accepted September 2018. DOI: 10.1080/15213269.2018.1523014

Abstract: We propose that the dark triad of personality predicts how recipients respond to eudaimonic narratives (stories dealing with purpose in life, the human condition, and human virtue). Matched eudaimonic or non-eudaimonic videos were presented via random assignment. The more individuals lack empathy and organize their world around self-promotion – reflected in the so-called dark triad of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy – the more they perceived the eudaimonic stories (vs. control) to be inauthentic and corny (perceived corniness). This effect translated to a more negative overall evaluation of the eudaimonic videos (moderated mediation). Self-reported feelings of being touched, moved, and inspired (meaningful affect) were largely unaffected by the dark triad, suggesting that these personality factors do not disable emotional responses to eudaimonic narratives.

Over 4 years, substantial numbers of Americans change how they identify along the lines of national origin, sexual orientation, religion, & class

Identity as Dependent Variable: How Americans Shift Their Identities to Better Align With Their Politics. Patrick J. Egan, Wilf Family Department of Politics, New York University, September 10, 2018, https://rubenson.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/egan-tpbw18.pdf

Political science generally treats demographic identities as “unmoved movers” in the chain of causality because these identities are conceptualized as being rooted in either ascriptive individual characteristics or hard-to-change aspects of individual experience. Here I hypothesize that the increasingly salient nature of partisanship and ideology as social identities leads liberal Democrats and conservative Republicans to shift their demo- graphic identities to better align with the prototypes of their political groups, and thus the identity groups that make up the left and right coalitions in U.S. politics. I explore the hypothesis with a panel dataset that tracks Americans’ identities and political affiliations over four years. The data show that substantial numbers of Americans change how they identify over this span along the lines of national origin, sexual orientation, religion, and class. Furthermore, identity switching with regard to Latino origin, religion, class, and sexual orientation is significantly predicted by Americans’ partisanship and ideology in their pasts. All of these shifts are in directions that bring Americans’ identities into better alignment with their politics. Politics plays a particularly important role in identification with two identity groups—lesbians, gays and bisexuals, and those identifying as having no religious affiliation—in that the impact of politics on identity is large for these groups relative to their prevalence in the population. In showing how the process of identification can be imbued with politics, these findings both enrich and complicate our efforts to un- derstand the relationship between identity and political behavior and indicate that caution must be taken in treating identities as firm, immovable political phenomena.

Acting on their fantasies was as good or better than expected & it improved relationships, especially those already in good relationships, people with a higher sex drive & thrill-seeking tendencies, & people who adapt to stress & uncertainty

Seven Fascinating Facts About Sexual Fantasies. Justin J Lehmiller. Psychology Today, Oct 01, 2018. https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/the-myths-sex/201810/seven-fascinating-facts-about-sexual-fantasies

3.) While threesomes were the most popular fantasy, they were also the fantasy that was least likely to turn out well when people acted on it. This is probably due, in part, to the fact that different people prefer different threesome scenarios, which may make it challenging for everyone to get what they want. However, it’s probably also due to the fact that most people don’t have a script for how a threesome should go, which means that many people end up in a multi-partner situation with a lot of uncertainty about who should be doing what with whom and when.

7.) For the most part, people who acted on their favorite sex fantasies reported that things turned out well. The numbers varied a bit depending on what it is that they did—and, as mentioned above, group sex was the least likely fantasy to turn out well. Overall, though, most people said that acting on their fantasies was at least as good or better than expected and that it improved their relationship. However, some people were more likely to have positive experiences than others, and that included people who were already in good relationships to start with, people with a higher sex drive and thrill-seeking tendencies, and people who are good at adapting to stress and uncertainty, meaning people who are low in the personality trait of neuroticism.