Wednesday, August 8, 2018

Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Markers of Narcissism

Holtzman, Nicholas S., Allison M. Tackman, Albrecht Kuefner, Fenne gro├če Deters, Mitja Back, Brent Donnellan, James W. Pennebaker, et al. 2018. “LIWC Markers of Narcissism: An Exploratory LIWC Analysis of 15 Samples.” PsyArXiv. August 8. doi:10.31234/osf.io/yvna6

Abstract: Narcissism is virtually unrelated to using first-person singular pronouns (Carey et al., [2015] Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109). The degree to which narcissism is linked to other aspects of language use, however, remains unclear. We conducted a multi-site, multi-measure, and dual-language project to identify potential linguistic markers of narcissism. We applied the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program to a large number of written and spoken texts across 15 samples (total N = 4,941). The strongest positive correlates of narcissism were: using words related to sports, second-person pronouns, and swear words. The strongest negative correlates of narcissism were: using anxiety/fear words, tentative words, and words related to sensory/perceptual processes. All effects were small (each |r| less than .10).

Participants lie significantly more in the random-draw task than in the real-effort task, leading to the conclusion lying about luck is intrinsically less costly than lying about performance

Lying about luck versus lying about performance. Agne Kajackaite. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Volume 153, September 2018, Pages 194-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2018.07.010

Highlights
•    I compare lying behavior in a real-effort task and a random-draw task.
•    Participants lie more in the random-draw task than in the real-effort task.
•    Lying about luck is intrinsically less costly than lying about performance.
•    More generally, the way outcomes are determined affects the decision to lie.

Abstract: I compare lying behavior in a real-effort task in which participants have control over outcomes and a task in which outcomes are determined by pure luck. Participants lie significantly more in the random-draw task than in the real-effort task, leading to the conclusion lying about luck is intrinsically less costly than lying about performance.

We study whether face-to-face group deliberation changes other-regarding preferences; social interactions do indeed change individuals’ preferences; specifically, individuals whose preferences are extremely egoistic and also unchanging tend to influence others the most

Social interactions and the influence of “extremists”. Crawford Donna Harris. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Volume 153, September 2018, Pages 238-266.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2018.07.007

Highlights
•    We study whether face-to-face group deliberation changes other-regarding preferences, particularly when individuals have to make their decisions alone afterwards.
•    We use a structural choice-revealed preference approach to measure each individual’s other-regarding preferences in a modified dictator game.
•    We examine heterogeneity in preferences and changes in these preferences before and after group deliberation.
•    We find that social interactions do indeed change individual preferences, even after they have left the group. In particularly, preferences of individuals in the same group become more homogenous after interactions.
•    We also find that students are more susceptible to social influence of individuals with extremely selfish preference (the “extremists” in our title) compared to non-students.

Abstract: A large literature has shown evidence that people are influenced by others, especially in group interactions. However, little is known about whether such influence remains after they have left the group. Using a modified dictator game and a structural choice-revealed preference approach, we measure an individual’s preferences before and after face-to-face interactions in a small group and then examine whether a change in preferences is observed after subjects have left the group and have to make their decisions alone. We find that social interactions do indeed change individuals’ preferences. Specifically, individuals whose preferences are extremely egoistic and also unchanging tend to influence others the most. These “left extremists” are more likely to be male and these effects are more prevalent amongst student subjects than non-student.

Intersectional Escape: Older Women Elude Agentic Prescriptions More Than Older Men

Intersectional Escape: Older Women Elude Agentic Prescriptions More Than Older Men. Ashley E. Martin, Michael S. North, Katherine W. Phillips. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218784895

Abstract: Both older individuals and women are proscribed from engaging in power-related behaviors, with women proscribed from behaving agentically and older individuals expected to cede desirable resources through “Succession.” However, little is known about whether these overlapping agency prescriptions equally target men and women across the lifespan. In seven studies, we find that older men face the strongest prescriptions to behave less agentically and cede resources, whereas older women are comparatively spared. We show that agency prescriptions more strongly target older men, compared to older women (Studies 1a, 1b, 2) and their younger counterparts (Studies 3 and 4) and examine social and economic consequences for agentic behavior in political, economic, and academic domains. We also find that older men garner more extreme (i.e., polarized) reactions due to their greater perceived resource threat (Studies 4-6). We conclude by discussing theoretical implications for diversity research and practical considerations for accommodating the fast-aging population.

Keywords: gender, age, ageism, intersectionality, backlash

In Western societies, a substantial proportion of the adult population does not have an intimate partner. Why? Evidence from Reddit

Why Men Stay Single? Evidence from Reddit. Menelaos Apostolou. Evolutionary Psychological Science, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40806-018-0163-7

Abstract: In Western societies, a substantial proportion of the adult population does not have an intimate partner. The current paper puts forward an evolutionary theoretical framework, where people stay single for three main reasons, namely the mismatch between ancestral and modern conditions has resulted in several individuals lacking the adaptations necessary for attracting and retaining mates, individuals can increase their fitness by opting out of relationships, and individuals have constraints that prevent them from attracting a mate. The paper attempted to identify the reasons that drive men to be single and to investigate whether they were consistent with the proposed theoretical framework. More specifically, 13,429 responses from a recent Reddit thread were analyzed, and 6794 responses were coded and classified in 43 categories. Among the most frequent reasons that men indicated for being single included poor flirting skills, low self-confidence, poor looks, shyness, low effort, and bad experience from previous relationships.

High price, brand label, the use of invasive placebos & high placebo dose increase the expectations toward the beneficial effect of a placebo treatment, which in turn boost the placebo effect; neuroimaging let us peek at mechanisms underlying these effects

Are Blue Pills Better Than Green? How Treatment Features Modulate Placebo Effects. Karin Meissner, Klaus Linde. International Review of Neurobiology, https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.irn.2018.07.014

Abstract: Treatment-related expectations are important predictors for placebo effects in various medical conditions. They are formed by verbal and nonverbal cues during the administration of treatments, such as verbal suggestions, conscious and unconscious associations with previous treatments, characteristics of patients and health-care providers as well as perceptual characteristics of the treatment. This review provides an overview of studies that aimed to elucidate the impact of treatment characteristics on expectations and placebo effects. Results show that high price, brand label, the use of invasive placebos and high placebo dose increase the expectations toward the beneficial effect of a placebo treatment, which in turn boost the placebo effect. Neuroimaging studies provide first insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these differential placebo effects.

Handedness predicts Conservative-Republican preference and eliminates relations of Big Five personality to political orientation using the 48 contiguous American states as analytical units

Handedness predicts Conservative-Republican preference and eliminates relations of Big Five personality to political orientation using the 48 contiguous American states as analytical units. Stewart J. H. McCann. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, https://doi.org/10.1080/1357650X.2018.1508214

ABSTRACT: The two present nomothetic studies focused on the period from 1996 to 2012 to determine relations between handedness and political orientation using the 48 contiguous American states as analytical units. The estimated percentage of left-handers in each state operationally defined handedness. A composite measure of Conservative-Republican preference was created from CBS/New York Times/Gallup polls of state resident conservatism and the percent in each state voting Republican in each presidential election from 1996 to 2012. Study 1 showed that state levels of left-handedness correlated to an extremely high degree with Conservative-Republican preference (r = −.80). As well, with common demographic differences between states reflected in socioeconomic status, White population percent, and urban population percent controlled through multiple regression, handedness still accounted for an additional 37.2% of the variance in Conservative-Republican preference. Study 2 found that each of the Big Five personality variables correlated significantly with handedness and with Conservative-Republican preference, but in the opposite direction. Furthermore, Study 2 demonstrated quite surprisingly that all Big Five personality relations to Conservative-Republican preference were eliminated when handedness was controlled in multiple regression equations. For all regression equations, the global Moran’s I test specifically developed for detecting residual spatial autocorrelation indicated no significant spatial autocorrelation.

KEYWORDS: Handedness, conservatism, Republican, states, Big Five