Tuesday, February 1, 2022

Age, gender, geographical region, belonging to the host country, religious fractionalization, & stereotypic gender roles (proxied by labor force participation rate of women in the athlete’s country) are prominent predictors of crying in the Olympics

Golden tears: A cross-country study of crying in the Olympics. Alex Krumer, Andrew Musau. January 2022. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358233754_Golden_tears_A_cross-country_study_of_crying_in_the_Olympics

Description: Previous psychological studies on emotional crying have overwhelmingly relied on self-reported data from individuals’ recollections of their own experiences. Apart from the bias that arises from faulty recollection, there is no incentive for an individual to truthfully reveal his or her own experiences in such surveys. In this paper, we address the methodological limitations associated with self-reporting and non-sufficient emotional elicitors, by exploring data on gold medalists of all 450 individual events at the 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympic Games at the end of the medalists’ respective competitions and during the medal ceremonies. We find that age, gender, geographical region, belonging to the host country, religious fractionalization, and stereotypic gender roles (proxied by labor force participation rate of women in the athlete’s home country) are likely to be prominent predictors of crying. Thus, our results suggest that emotional crying is not only a biological feature, but also a cultural phenomenon.


Social acceptance & social anxiety, embarrassment, jealousy, hurt feelings, guilt, & lowered self-esteem: We may do distance ourselves from other people, aggress rejecters, or engage in symbolic efforts to increase subjective acceptance

The relentless pursuit of acceptance and belonging. Mark R. Keary, Shira Gabriel. Advances in Motivation Science, January 31 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.adms.2021.12.001

Abstract: A great deal of human behavior is motivated by the desire for acceptance and belonging, and a high proportion of people's emotional reactions stems from concerns with actual or potential social rejection. The pervasive quest for acceptance can be seen in the attention and effort people devote to their physical appearance, their efforts to be liked, achievement-related behaviors, conformity, accumulating resources that others need, and generally being the sort of person with whom others want to have social connections. Depending on the context, concerns with social acceptance are typically accompanied by emotions such as social anxiety, embarrassment, jealousy, hurt feelings, and guilt, as well as lowered self-esteem. In addition, people who feel inadequately valued and accepted may behave in ways to increase acceptance, aggress against those who rejected them, distance themselves from other people, and/or engage in symbolic efforts to increase their subjective sense of being accepted. Concerns with acceptance and belonging exert a pervasive, ongoing effect on human thought, behavior, and emotion.

Keywords: BelongingAcceptanceRejectionExclusionOstracismRelational value


COVID-19 state anxiety is linked to everyday cognition and slower processing speed in women, but not men

COVID-19-Related Anxiety and Cognition in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Examining Sex as a Moderator. Ashley F. Curtis et al. Psychological Reports, January 31, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1177/00332941211064820

Abstract: Aging populations experience disproportionate risk for cognitive decline, which may be exacerbated by coronavirus (COVID-19) illness, particularly among women. This study tested sex as a moderator of associations between COVID-19 state anxiety and cognition in middle-aged/older adults. Adults aged 50+ (N = 275; 151 men/124 women) completed the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and Cognitive Failures Questionnaire online from remote locations in July/August 2020. A subset of participants (n = 62) completed an objective cognitive task (Stroop). Multiple regressions determined whether sex moderated associations between COVID-19 anxiety and cognitive outcomes. Sex was a significant moderator, such that for women (not men), greater COVID-19 anxiety was associated with more memory failures and blunders (subjective measures) and worse processing speed (objective measure). COVID-19 state anxiety is linked to everyday cognition and processing speed in women, but not men. Consistency across subjective and objective measures promotes the need for sex-specific understanding of the pandemic’s behavioral and cognitive effects in mid-to-late life.

Keywords: Cognition, coronavirus, anxiety, sex differences, middle-aged adults, older adults


37% of the participants contacted other persons because they dreamed about them; dream recall frequency, attitude towards dreaming, younger age, and female gender was associated with contacting the person(s) dreamed of

The Frequency of Contacting Persons you Dreamed About: A Social Aspect of Dreaming. Michael Schredl, Anja S. Göritz. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, January 31, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1177/02762366221077631

Abstract: Although dreams are very private, dreaming has also social components, i.e., dreams are shared quite often. We studied the frequency of how often the dreamer deliberately contacted another person because s/he dreamed about this person, as this might intensify the waking-life bonds with this person. Overall, 2929 participants completed the dream survey, and a subsample also completed a Big Five Personality inventory. The findings indicate that 37% of the participants contacted other persons because they dreamed about them. Dream recall frequency, attitude towards dreaming, younger age, and female gender was associated with contacting the person(s) dreamed of. Moreover, extraversion was also related to the frequency of contacting the person(s) dreamed of – similar to the relationship found for dream sharing frequency and extraversion. However, the association with low conscientiousness is a new finding. It would be very interesting to test whether this social behavior (contacting another person) motivated by dreams strengthens the social bonds between the dreamer and the contacted person(s) and thereby provide support for the Social Simulation Theory.

Keywords: social aspects of dreaming, dream recall frequency, attitude towards dreaming, extraversion, conscientiousness



 
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