Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Unemployed individuals who do not suffer from material deprivation may not experience a life satisfaction decrease and may even experience a life satisfaction increase

A Pecuniary Explanation for the Heterogeneous Effects of Unemployment on Happiness. Jianbo Luo. Journal of Happiness Studies, October 30 2019.

Abstract: Why unemployment has heterogeneous effects on subjective well-being remains a hot topic. Using German Socio-Economic Panel data, this paper finds significant heterogeneity using different material deprivation measures. Unemployed individuals who do not suffer from material deprivation may not experience a life satisfaction decrease and may even experience a life satisfaction increase. Policy implications for taxation and unemployment insurance are discussed.

Keywords Unemployment Subjective well-being Heterogeneity Material deprivation Minimum required income

We explore two key contexts of humility, intellectual and cultural

Humility. Daryl R. Van Tongeren et al. Current Directions in Psychological Science, July 2, 2019.

Abstract: We review humility, a trait characterized by (a) an ability to accurately acknowledge one’s limitations and abilities and (b) an interpersonal stance that is other-oriented rather than self-focused. We explore two key contexts of humility, intellectual and cultural; explain why humility is important; and identify open questions for future research.

Keywords humility, humble, modest, modesty

Research on humility has been growing rapidly (see Worthington, Davis, & Hook, 2017). Although research in social psychology has long documented the many ways in which humans are egoistic, selfishly motivated, and self-protective (Van Tongeren & Myers, 2017), recent work on humility has examined personality characteristics associated with acknowledging and owning one's biases and limitations (Haggard et al., 2018), openness (Hook, Davis, Owen, Worthington, & Utsey, 2013), and prioritizing the well-being of others (Davis et al., 2013). The purpose of this article is to review the research on humility, identify open questions for further inquiry, and catalyze future research in this important area of psychological science.

What Is Humility?

Although some lay conceptualizations of humility involve characteristics such as lowliness or self-abasement (Weidman, Cheng, & Tracy, 2018), these have not been core features of psychological conceptualizations of humility. Rather, a recent review of humility measures (McElroy-Heltzel, Davis, DeBlaere, Worthington, & Hook, 2019) revealed that most researchers conceptualize humility as involving both intrapersonal and interpersonal processes, although there is somewhat more agreement among scholars about the intrapersonal aspect of the definition. Intrapersonally, humility involves the degree to which someone seems to have a relatively accurate view of self. Expressions of this aspect of humility might include the ability to acknowledge and own one's limitations (Haggard et al., 2018), recognize the fallibility of one's beliefs, and have a clearer sense of one's strengths and weaknesses. Interpersonally, humility involves the degree to which one has an orientation toward the needs and well-being of others (Davis et al., 2011). People might judge this aspect of humility through interpersonal behaviors that indicate the restraint of the ego, modest self-presentation, and respectful interpersonal interaction.

Early research focused on potential problems defining and measuring humility (Davis, Worthington, & Hook, 2010), given concerns that self-reports of high humility might paradoxically indicate a lack of humility. Over time, several teams began to use a personality-judgment approach that treats multimethod measurement strategies as the gold standard (Baumeister, Vohs, & Funder, 2007). Using this approach, researchers have published many measures of humility, with most including both intrapersonal and interpersonal content (McElroy-Heltzel et al., 2019). Measurement approaches have included selfreports (e.g., Ashton et al., 2004; Leary et al., 2017), otherreports (e.g., Davis et al., 2011; McElroy et al., 2014; Owens, Johnson, & Mitchell, 2013), implicit measures (e.g., Rowatt et al., 2006), and behavioral measures (e.g., Van Tongeren, Stafford, et al., 2016). The vast majority of studies have focused on humility as a trait, which is the focus of this review.

Furthermore, relative to other virtues, such as forgiveness or gratitude, in which the context is more specified, humility-relevant behavior may occur in a range of situations. Measures have sometimes focused on contexts theorized to evoke egotism or defensiveness, which make the practice of humility more difficult. In the study of humility, two contexts have garnered initial attention. One context involves encountering the ideas of other people. Intellectual humility refers to humility about one's ideas, beliefs, or viewpoints (Davis et al., 2016). Within this context, intrapersonally, intellectual humility involves awareness and ownership of the limitations and biases in one's formation and maintenance of knowledge (Haggard et al., 2018) and a willingness to revise one's views in light of strong evidence (Leary et al., 2017; McElroy et al., 2014). Interpersonally, it involves regulating egoistic motives so that one can present one's ideas in a modest and respectful manner, admit when one is wrong, present one's beliefs in ways that are nondefensive, and show that one cares more about learning and preserving relationships than about being "right" or demonstrating intellectual superiority. Importantly, intellectual humility is not being ambivalent or lacking personal conviction. Rather, it is a way of holding one's beliefs, however convinced one might be.with perspective taking and respect for others, viewpoints.

A second context involves intercultural relationships. Belonging to a cultural group tends to reinforce biases related to loyalty and commitment. Cultural humility refers to humility about one's cultural beliefs, values, and attitudes. Intrapersonally, cultural humility involves an awareness of the limitations of one's own cultural worldview, curbing the natural tendency to view one's own values and culture as superior. Interpersonally, cultural humility involves an openness and willingness to learn about the cultural orientation of other people (Hook et al., 2013). Cultural humility can involve various aspects of cultural identity, including the political (i.e., political humility) or religious (i.e., religious humility) beliefs and practices of other individuals. In therapeutic settings (Hook et al., 2013), clients who rated their therapists as high in cultural humility reported a stronger therapeutic alliance and better improvement in therapy (Hook et al., 2013). Clients also reported experiencing fewer racial offenses or microaggressions when they had a therapist with higher cultural humility (Hook, Farrell, et al., 2016). In general, individuals (laypersons and counselors alike) with cultural humility are more likely to consider the importance of cultural backgrounds, understand their own cultural limits and privilege, and take a genuine interest in learning from the cultures of others.

When Media Violence Awakens our Better Nature: The Effect of Unpleasant Violence on Reactivity toward and Enjoyment of Media Violence

When Media Violence Awakens our Better Nature: The Effect of Unpleasant Violence on Reactivity toward and Enjoyment of Media Violence. T. Franklin Waddell, Erica Bailey, Marcela Weber, James D. Ivory & Edward Downs. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Oct 29 2019.

Abstract: The effects of violent media on aggression-related outcomes is an ongoing debate, often focusing on the effects of violence portrayals that are sanitized for the viewer. However, narratives that focus on the real world consequences of violence are also known to receive critical acclaim and broad exposure. Do unpleasant portrayals of violence affect viewers’ subsequent reactivity to violence? Results from two laboratory studies show that prior exposure to unpleasant violence increases donation behavior to assist victims of real world violence (N = 60) and decreases enjoyment of fictional media violence (N = 109). The implications of these findings are discussed.

Beyond sex differences, factors such as early environmental cues of relationship instability, individuals’ motivation for engaging in casual sex, and higher number of their casual sex partners contribute to the positive view of casual sex

Beyond Sex Differences: Predictors of Negative Emotions Following Casual Sex. Jessica A. Hehman, Catherine A. Salmon. Evolutionary Psychological Science, October 30 2019.

Abstract: Recently, much attention has been focused on understanding casual sex, or hooking up, among college students. The current study uses an adaptationist approach to go beyond sex differences in casual sex behavior, examining predictors of emotional reactions and including a community sample (39 females, 84 males) in addition to a typical college sample (103 females, 62 males). If males and females possess different emotional mechanisms designed to evaluate the consequences of sexual behavior, we would expect sex differences in emotional reactions as well as in motivations for engaging in casual sex. Individual differences in motivation may influence whether emotional reactions to casual sex are positive or negative. Early environmental cues of relationship stability may also have an impact on emotional responses. Results indicate that in addition to sex differences, factors such as early environmental cues of relationship instability, individuals’ motivation for engaging in casual sex, and the number of their casual sex partners contribute to the positive or negative nature of their response to casual sex experiences. In addition, results from the community sample suggest that there may be life stage-specific effects.

Keywords: Casual sex Sex differences Motivation Father absence Life stage-specific effects

Alcohol-related harms have been decreasing for more recent cohorts of young adults over the past three decades, which is consistent with previously-reported declines in alcohol consumption among this age group

Visontay, Rachel, Louise Mewton, Matthew Sunderland, Katrina Prior, and Tim Slade. 2019. “Declining Alcohol-related Harms in Young Adults: A Cross-temporal Meta-analysis Using the AUDIT.” PsyArXiv. October 30. doi:10.31234/

Background: Recent studies suggest that alcohol use has been decreasing among both adolescents and young adults. In the current paper, we aim to test whether this trend extends to a decline in the harmful consequences of alcohol use (i.e. alcohol-related harms).
Methods: We systematically searched the literature for articles examining alcohol-related harms and alcohol consumption in adolescent (12-17 years) and young adult (18-24 years) samples using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and AUDIT Alcohol Consumption subscale (AUDIT-C), respectively. Insufficient data was available for AUDIT and AUDIT-C scores in adolescents as well as AUDIT-C scores for young adults. As such, we applied cross-temporal meta-analysis to the extracted data for AUDIT scores in young adults only.
Results: A decrease was found in young adults’ AUDIT scores measured between 1989-2015, representing a .73 standard deviation change over this period. Variance did not change over this time. Interpretation of the study findings is limited by small sample size and the breadth of the AUDIT instrument.
Conclusions: Results indicate that alcohol-related harms have been decreasing for more recent cohorts of young adults over the past three decades, which is consistent with previously-reported declines in alcohol consumption among this age group. Several factors such as delayed initiation to alcohol consumption, greater awareness and understanding of alcohol-related harm, increased digital socialising, and health promotion efforts may be driving these reductions.

Money is generally seen as good, but what about when it is morally tainted?

The Dilemma of Dirty Money. Arber Tasimi, James J. Gross. Current Directions in Psychological Science, October 29, 2019.

Abstract: Money is generally seen as good, but what about when it is morally tainted? Does this affect whether people want money or how they would spend it? In this article, we review a nascent literature on “dirty money” and then organize these findings using a framework that formalizes the idea that dirty money creates a valuation conflict because it is both “good” (the money part) and “bad” (the dirty part). To show how this conflict is adjudicated, we draw on the self-control literature, which provides a way to think about how dueling impulses come into being and wax and wane over time until one prevails. We conclude by outlining promising directions for future research and considering their broader implications for the field.

Keywords affective science, decision-making, development, individual differences, money, morality, value-based choice

Cumulative technological evolution: There is a brain network for tool-use action observation (the tool-use observation network), mostly situated in the left hemisphere, & distinct from the non-tool-use observation network

To Watch is to Work: a Review of NeuroImaging Data on Tool Use Observation Network. Emanuelle Reynaud, Jordan Navarro, Mathieu Lesourd, François Osiurak. Neuropsychology Review, October 29 2019.

Abstract: Since the discovery of mirror neurons in the 1990s, many neuroimaging studies have tackled the issue of action observation with the aim of unravelling a putative homolog human system. However, these studies do not distinguish between non-tool-use versus tool-use actions, implying that a common brain network is systematically involved in the observation of any action. Here we provide evidence for a brain network dedicated to tool-use action observation, called the tool-use observation network, mostly situated in the left hemisphere, and distinct from the non-tool-use action observation network. Areas specific for tool-use action observation are the left cytoarchitectonic area PF within the left inferior parietal lobe and the left inferior frontal gyrus. The neural correlates associated with the observation of tool-use reported here offer new insights into the neurocognitive bases of action observation and tool use, as well as addressing more fundamental issues on the origins of specifically human phenomena such as .

Keywords: Tool use Action observation Left inferior parietal cortex Meta-analysis

The past decade contained almost half the cases (13%) that existed at the 80s peak of serial homicide (27%); technology, shifts in offending behavior, proactive law enforcement action, & vigilance of society contributed

Yaksic, Enzo, Clare Allely, Raneesha De Silva, Melissa Smith-Inglis, Daniel Konikoff, Kori Ryan, Dan Gordon, et al. 2019. “Detecting a Decline in Serial Homicide: Have We Banished the Devil from the Details?.” SocArXiv. February 11. doi:10.1080/23311886.2019.1678450

Objectives: The likelihood that serial murderers are responsible for most unresolved homicides and missing persons was examined by investigating the accounting of the phenomenon in the context of a declining prevalence.
Methods: A mixed methods approach was used, consisting of a review of a sample of unresolved homicides, a comparative analysis of the frequency of known serial homicide series and unresolved serial homicide series, and semi-structured interviews of experts.
Results: The past decade contained almost half the cases (13%) that existed at the 1980s peak of serial homicide (27%). Only 282 (1.3%) strangled females made up the 22,444 unresolved homicides reviewed. Most expert respondents thought it unreasonable that any meaningful proportion of missing persons cases are victims of serial homicide.
Conclusions: Technology, shifts in offending behavior, proactive law enforcement action, and vigilance of society have transformed serial killing and aids in viewing offenders as people impacted by societal shifts and cultural norms. The absence of narrative details inhibited some aspects of the review. An exhaustive list of known unresolved serial homicide series remained elusive as some missing persons are never reported. Future research should incorporate those intending to murder serially, but whose efforts were stalled by arrest, imprisonment, or death.

In addition, individuals who perceived themselves as being more attractive tended to have a higher sexual desire and higher relationship quality

Extradyadic behaviors and gender: How do they relate with sexual desire, relationship quality, and attractiveness. Joana Arantes, Helena M. Oliveira and Fátima Barros. Front. Psychol., Oct 29 2019, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02554

Abstract: Recent years have seen an increasing number of studies on relationship infidelity (Fisher, 2018; Pinto & Arantes, 2017; Silva, Saraiva, Albuquerque & Arantes, 2017; Pazhoohi et al., 2017). However, much is still to learn about the impact of these extradyadic behaviors on subsequent relationships that an individual may have. Our main goal was to study the association between past extradyadic behaviors – inflicted and suffered – and current relationship quality, sexual desire and attractiveness. Specifically, we aimed to: i) Understand if past extradyadic behaviors are related to current relationship quality, sexual desire, and self-perceived and partner’s attractiveness; ii) Identify possible gender differences in these variables. For that, 382 participants (260 females and 122 males) were recruited through personal and institutional e-mails, online social networks (e.g., Facebook), and the website of the Evolutionary Psychology Group from the University of Minho. All participants completed a demographic and relationship questionnaire, followed by questions related to extradyadic behaviors and self-perceived attractiveness, the Perceived Relationship Quality Components (PRQC) Inventory, the Sex Drive Scale (SDQ), and the Importance of Partner’s Physical Attractiveness Scale (IPPAS). For those currently involved in a relationship, results suggested that extradyadic behaviors (both suffered or inflicted) are linked with current low relationship quality and high sexual desire in the present. In addition, individuals who perceived themselves as being more attractive tended to have a higher sexual desire and higher relationship quality. Overall, men reported higher levels of extradyadic behaviors and sexual desire, gave more importance to physical attractiveness, and perceived their current relationship as having less quality than women. These results add to the literature by focusing on different variables that play an important role in romantic relationships, and have important implications.

Keywords: extradyadic behaviors, sexual desire, relationship quality, attractiveness, gender

Real-life revenge may not effectively deter norm violations, as a response that must take place almost immediately and in the same domain to be effective

Real-life revenge may not effectively deter norm violations. Maartje Elshout, Rob M. A., Nelissen, Ilja van Beest, Suzan Elshout & Wilco W. van Dijk. The Journal of Social Psychology, Oct 28 2019.

ABSTRACT: The current article examined the characteristics of real-life revenge acts. A demographically diverse sample of avengers described autobiographical revenge acts and the preceding offense. They rated the severity of both acts, the time before taking revenge, and motives for the timing. Independent raters also rated the severity of both acts and coded the domains. Results revealed that real-life revenge is (1) by and large equally common as revealed by lab-based studies on revenge, but (2) is usually a delayed response, and (3) although similar to offenses in severity (according to independent parties), it is dissimilar in the domain. These characteristics contradict manifestations of revenge as studied in lab research (e.g., as a response that must take place immediately and in the same domain). These discrepancies suggest that not all real-life instances of revenge are optimally suited to serve a deterrence function and that other motives may underlie more destructive revenge acts.

KEYWORDS: Revenge, vengeance, retaliation, violence, aggression



Only 14.4% of avengers took revenge immediately. The majority of avengers took revenge after at least a day had passed and the largest group took revenge between 1 week and 1 month after the offense. The delay was influenced by (low) immediate revenge possibility and planning tendencies. The results on time between the offense and revenge act are in line with theoretical reflections on revenge arguing that revenge usually takes place after some time has passed (Frijda, 2007; Kim & Smith, 1993), in part because it requires planning (Bar-Elli & Heyd, 1986).
In lab research, revenge acts usually take place right after the offense, in line with its supposed role as a deterrence mechanism. However, the current findings suggest that revenge is typically delayed, which makes it poorly geared toward deterring future offenses as this requires a certain level of instantaneousness for the offense to be associated with the punishment.