Saturday, November 27, 2021

Formal religious practices statistically predicted increased severity of suicidal thoughts, while belief in God did not; religious conflict was also associated with increased severity of suicidal thoughts

Rabasco, A., & Andover, M. (2021). The relationship between religious practices and beliefs and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among transgender and gender diverse adults. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Nov 2021.

Abstract: Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people are at heightened risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (James et al., 2016). Some studies have found that religious practices and beliefs are positively associated with suicidal thoughts or behaviors among TGD individuals (Gibbs & Goldbach, 2015), while other studies have found a negative association (Grossman et al., 2016) or no relationship (YĆ¼ksel et al., 2017). In order to better understand the relationship between religion and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among TGD people, the present study investigated the relationship between religious practices, belief in God, and religious conflict, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. TGD adults (N = 180) were recruited and completed questionnaires online assessing religious practices, religious conflict, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. It was found that formal religious practices statistically predicted increased severity of suicidal thoughts, while belief in God did not. Religious conflict was also associated with increased severity of suicidal thoughts. Specifically, participants who reported currently holding religious beliefs that were not accepting of their gender identity had significantly higher severity of suicidal thoughts compared to participants who reported currently holding religious beliefs that were accepting of their gender identity. No relationship between religious practices and beliefs and suicidal behaviors emerged. These findings underscore the nuanced relationship between religion and suicidality among TGD people. They also point to the potential for religious communities to help reduce suicidal ideation among TGD members by fostering personal religious beliefs that are accepting of diverse gender identities.

Countries and Cultural Differences in the Stigma of Mental Illness: The East–West Divide

Countries and Cultural Differences in the Stigma of Mental Illness: The East–West Divide. Anne C. Krendl, Bernice A. Pescosolido. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, February 21, 2020.

Abstract: Mental illness is a global public health crisis. Although rates of untreated cases stand as a primary problem, stigma is a significant obstacle. Yet, global differences in levels and roots of stigma remain poorly understood. Using the Stigma in Global Context–Mental Health Study (SGC-MHS) data, we analyzed data on two components of stigma—prejudice and discriminatory potential—attached to clinically diagnostic cases of depression and schizophrenia. We examined whether stigma was higher in the East than West. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the link between prejudice and discriminatory potential in the East was due, in part, to cultural differences in the attributions about mental illness. With SGC-MHS’ nationally representative vignette data from over 11,000 respondents in 11 relevant countries (four Eastern, seven Western), analyses replicated past research of higher levels of stigma and more moral attributions in Eastern countries, particularly for depression. Moreover, prejudice-related disclosure spillover concerns predicted discriminatory potential (social distance) in the East, but not the West; this was driven by a greater emphasis on moral attributions in the East. Finally, exploratory analyses found that Western respondents endorsed higher discrimination for minority (vs. majority) group members with mental illness. In Eastern countries, the same pattern emerged for schizophrenia, but the reverse occurred for depression—greater stigma for majority as compared with minority group members. Together, these findings suggest that cultural differences in the sources of prejudice and attributions about the etiology of mental illness contribute, at least in part, to global differences in the profile of stigma.

Keywords: mental health stigma, global, double jeopardy, depression, schizophrenia, mental illness

Paper suggests older humans are actually evolved to be much more physically active for longer than we usually are, & that physical activity is therefore extremely protective against chronic disease and extends life & health

The active grandparent hypothesis: Physical activity and the evolution of extended human healthspans and lifespans. Daniel E. Lieberman et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, December 14, 2021 118 (50) e2107621118;

Abstract; The proximate mechanisms by which physical activity (PA) slows senescence and decreases morbidity and mortality have been extensively documented. However, we lack an ultimate, evolutionary explanation for why lifelong PA, particularly during middle and older age, promotes health. As the growing worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity accelerates the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases among aging populations, integrating evolutionary and biomedical perspectives can foster new insights into how and why lifelong PA helps preserve health and extend lifespans. Building on previous life-history research, we assess the evidence that humans were selected not just to live several decades after they cease reproducing but also to be moderately physically active during those postreproductive years. We next review the longstanding hypothesis that PA promotes health by allocating energy away from potentially harmful overinvestments in fat storage and reproductive tissues and propose the novel hypothesis that PA also stimulates energy allocation toward repair and maintenance processes. We hypothesize that selection in humans for lifelong PA, including during postreproductive years to provision offspring, promoted selection for both energy allocation pathways which synergistically slow senescence and reduce vulnerability to many forms of chronic diseases. As a result, extended human healthspans and lifespans are both a cause and an effect of habitual PA, helping explain why lack of lifelong PA in humans can increase disease risk and reduce longevity.

Keywords: physical activityexerciselifespanhealthspanevolution

594,196 fifteen-year-olds, 77 countries: girls experience less physical & verbal victimization & have stronger anti-bullying attitudes; physical victims have less –not more--anti-bullying attitudes

Marsh, Herb, Jiesi Guo, Philip D. Parker, Reinhard Pekrun, Geetanjali Basarkod, Theresa Dicke, Roberto H. Parada, et al. 2021. “An Integrative Review of Cross-national Comparisons of Verbal, Relational, and Physical Peer Victimization: Gender Differences, Paradoxical Anti-bullying Attitudes, and Well-being.” PsyArXiv. November 23. doi:10.31234/

Abstract: Current victimization studies and meta-analyses are based mainly on a unidimensional perspective in a few developed OECD countries. This provides a weak basis for generalizability over multiple victimization (relational, verbal, physical) components and different countries. We test the cross-national generalizability (594,196 fifteen-year-olds; 77 countries) of competing victimization models. In support of our three-component model, differentiating the multiple components of victimization facilitated understanding: gender differences (girls experience less physical and verbal victimization and stronger anti-bullying attitudes, but relational differences are small); paradoxical anti-bullying attitudes (physical victims have less –not more--anti-bullying attitudes); and well-being (policy/practice focuses primarily on physical victimization, but verbal and relational victimization effects are larger). These key findings provide theoretical advances with implications for policy, practice, and intervention.