Thursday, September 6, 2018

Dreams of teeth falling out: an empirical investigation of physiological and psychological correlates

Dreams of teeth falling out: an empirical investigation of physiological and psychological correlates. Naama Rozen & Nirit Soffer-Dudek. Front. Psychol., doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01812

Abstract: Teeth dreams (TD), i.e., dreams of teeth falling out or rotting, are one of the most common and universal typical dream themes, yet their source remains unknown and they have rarely been studied empirically. They are especially enigmatic as they do not readily fall under the rubric of the “continuity hypothesis”, i.e., dreams of current and salient waking-life experiences. The aim of the present study was to explore two possible hypotheses for the origin of TD; specifically, TD as incorporation of dental irritation into dreaming, and TD as a symbolic manifestation of psychological distress. Dream themes, dental irritation, psychological distress, and sleep quality were assessed among 210 undergraduates. TD were related to dental irritation (specifically, tension sensations in the teeth, gums, or jaws upon awakening), whereas other dream types were not. Conversely, TD were unrelated to psychological distress, whereas other dream types were (specifically, dreams of being smothered and dreams of falling). This disparity in the correlates of TD existed despite a small but significant relationship between psychological distress and dental irritation. Albeit preliminary, the present findings support the dental irritation hypothesis and do not support the symbolic hypothesis regarding the origins of TD. Research on TD portrays one path through which the mind may distort somatosensory stimuli and incorporate them into dreams as a vivid and emotionally-salient image; these preliminary findings highlight the potential of studying TD in order to broaden our understanding of the cognitive mechanisms governing dream production.

Keywords: Typical dreams, Sleep Bruxism, Teeth grinding, Continuity Hypothesis, Psychopathology

In impression management situations (e.g., job interview or date), people communicate their effort less than audiences would prefer; thus, success alone may not be enough to make a positive impression on others; emphasizing effort as the cause for success also matters

Impression (Mis) Management When Communicating Success. Janina Steinmetz. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2018.1500289

Abstract: People routinely engage in impression management, for example, by highlighting successes. It is not yet known how people attribute their success (to talent vs. effort) to give a positive impression. Three experiments explore this question and test whether people’s attributions of success receive favor from their audience. The findings show that, in impression management situations (e.g., job interview or date), people communicate their effort less than audiences would prefer. Thus, success alone may not be enough to make a positive impression on others; emphasizing effort as the cause for success also matters.

One reason why people avoid using social media to express their opinions is to avert social sanctions as proposed by the spiral of silence theory; rejection sensitive individuals are less likely to share political information in social media

A social safety net? Rejection sensitivity and political opinion sharing among young people in social media. Emma A B├Ąck et al. New Media & Society, https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444818795487

Abstract: One reason why people avoid using social media to express their opinions is to avert social sanctions as proposed by the spiral of silence theory. We here elaborate on individual-level sensitivity to social rejection in relation to voicing political opinions on social media sites. Given the uncertainty about sharing political views in social media, and the fact that social acceptance, or rejection, can be easily communicated through, for instance, likes, or a lack of likes, we argue that rejection sensitive individuals are less likely to share political information in social media. Combining an analysis of unique survey data on psychological characteristics and online political activity with focus group interviews with Swedish youth supports our argument, showing that rejection sensitive individuals are less inclined to engage politically in social media. The results extend on previous research by establishing the role of rejection sensitivity in political engagement in social media.

Keywords: Opinion sharing, rejection sensitivity, social media, spiral of silence

She Looks like She’d Be an Animal in Bed: Dehumanization of Drinking Women in Social Contexts

She Looks like She’d Be an Animal in Bed: Dehumanization of Drinking Women in Social Contexts. Abigail R. Riemer et al. Sex Roles, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-018-0958-9

Abstract: The purpose of the present research was to examine the perceptions of women who drink in social contexts through the lens of dehumanization (Haslam 2006). Across three experiments, we manipulated the presence of alcohol by depicting a woman at a bar with a bottle of beer or a bottle of water and measured dehumanization. As hypothesized, women were dehumanized more in the alcohol condition than in the water condition by men (Experiments 1–3) and women (Experiments 2 and 3). Notably, the presence of alcohol compared to water had no impact on dehumanization of men (Experiment 2). Also, as hypothesized, perceived intoxication emerged as a significant mediator of the link between alcohol condition and dehumanization in Experiments 1 and 2, and alcohol quantity predicted greater dehumanization in Experiment 3. Extending the present work to prior work in this area, Experiment 3 also examined the links among alcohol, perceived sexual availability, and dehumanization, revealing that perceived sexual availability mediated the link between alcohol and dehumanization. Implications for theories of dehumanization, alcohol, and social perception as well as practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Women's and men's orgasmic latencies during partnered sex are substantially longer than masturbation's; women reporting the greatest difficulty reaching orgasm have the longest latencies & are likely to find masturbation more satisfying

Orgasmic Latency and Related Parameters in Women During Partnered and Masturbatory Sex. David L. Rowland et al. J Sex Med 2018;XX:XXX–XXX. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2018.08.003

Abstract

Introduction: Orgasmic latency (OL) during partnered sex (POL) and OL during masturbatory sex (MOL) in women with and without orgasmic difficulty have received minimal attention.

Aim: To ascertain POL and MOL both overall and more specifically in women with and without difficulty reaching orgasm and to explore interrelationships between masturbatory and partnered latencies and sexual satisfaction.

Methods: Participants for this study were 2,304 women drawn from community–based samples in the United States and Hungary who completed an investigator–derived questionnaire regarding their sexual history and response, including items related to frequency of masturbation and partnered sex, sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasmic response, OL, distress, partner distress, and sexual satisfaction.

Main Outcome Measure: Self-reported OL and related orgasmic parameters during masturbation and partnered sex in women with and without difficulty reaching orgasm were assessed.

Results: POL were longer than those during MOL. Women experiencing difficulty reaching orgasm showed even longer latencies during partnered sex but comparable latencies during masturbation. Covariates related to POL included age, overall relationship quality, masturbation frequency, MOL, and level of distress about not reaching orgasm.

Clinical Implications: POL in women are substantially longer than men’s, suggesting the potential need for an increased repertoire of stimulatory behaviors to increase the woman’s arousal.

Strength and Limitations: The study was well powered and drew from a multi-national population. However, specific types of sexual stimulation during partnered and masturbatory sex were not included in this analysis.

Conclusion: MOL for women and POL differ significantly, with latencies during partnered sex being substantially longer than masturbation, although women reporting the greatest difficulty reaching orgasm have the longest latencies and are likely to find masturbation more satisfying than women who do not.

Personality and Political Preferences: The 2016 U.S. Presidential Elections

Personality and Political Preferences: The 2016 U.S. Presidential Elections. Jo Ann A. Abe. Journal of Research in Personality, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2018.09.001

Highlights
•    Self-ratings of personality showed weak associations with political preferences.
•    Appraisal of candidates’ personality robustly associated with political preferences.
•    Appraisals stronger predictor than demographics, political party, racial attitudes.
•    Appraisals related to linguistic markers of liberal, conservative, populist values.

Abstract: This study examined whether personality variables would account for political preferences during the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election using a demographically diverse sample of participants (N = 897). Study A revealed participants’ ratings of their own personality and emotions were weakly associated with political preferences, but their ratings of candidates’ personality showed robust associations, and were far more predictive of voting intention than all of the demographic variables, political affiliation, and racial attitudes combined. In Study B, linguistic analysis of narratives revealed words reflective of liberal values were correlated with positive evaluations of Clinton’s personality, whereas words reflective of conservative values and “populist” sentiment were correlated with positive evaluations of Trump’s personality, suggesting appraisals of candidates may be associated with values.

Do Individuals Successfully Cover up Their Lies? On average, subjects are perceived as more truthful if they deceive, also happens for those with a genuine dishonest appearance

Do Individuals Successfully Cover up Their Lies? Evidence from a Compliance Experiment. Nadja Dwenger, Tim Lohse. Journal of Economic Psychology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2018.08.007

Highlights
•    We investigate how well subjects in a face-to-face situation can delude others.
•    Videotaped honest and dishonest income reports of the same subject are assessed.
•    On average, subjects are perceived as more truthful if they deceive.
•    In particular, this holds true for those with a genuine dishonest appearance.
•    However, a subject appears less truthful if she was caught lying right before.

Abstract: We study how well individuals in a face-to-face situation can delude others. We exploit data from a laboratory experiment in which participants were asked to assess video-taped statements as being rather truthful or untruthful. The statements are face-to-face tax declarations. The video clips feature each subject twice making the same declaration: One time the subject is reporting honestly, and the other time willingly dishonestly. This allows us to investigate within-subject differences in perceived truthfulness. Our study provides several novel insights. We find that individuals can cover up their lies successfully. On average, a subject is perceived as more truthful if she deceives than if she reports honestly. In particular, individuals with a genuine dishonest appearance manage to increase their perceived truthfulness by up to 14 percent when lying. Moreover, our results show that a subject appears less truthful if she had previously been caught lying. Being detected as a liar previously appears to impair self-confidence and to thereby lower an individual’s ability to deceive.

Conversations with new people is rewarding part of social life, but can also be intimidating & anxiety provoking; following interactions, people systematically underestimated how much their conversation partners liked them & enjoyed their company

The Liking Gap in Conversations: Do People Like Us More Than We Think? Erica J. Boothby et al. Psychological Science, https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797618783714

Abstract: Having conversations with new people is an important and rewarding part of social life. Yet conversations can also be intimidating and anxiety provoking, and this makes people wonder and worry about what their conversation partners really think of them. Are people accurate in their estimates? We found that following interactions, people systematically underestimated how much their conversation partners liked them and enjoyed their company, an illusion we call the liking gap. We observed the liking gap as strangers got acquainted in the laboratory, as first-year college students got to know their dorm mates, and as formerly unacquainted members of the general public got to know each other during a personal development workshop. The liking gap persisted in conversations of varying lengths and even lasted for several months, as college dorm mates developed new relationships. Our studies suggest that after people have conversations, they are liked more than they know.

Keywords: interpersonal interaction, social perception, social interaction, meta-perception, conversation, open data