Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Our results also showed that Facebook news use was related to a modest over-time spiral of depolarization. Furthermore, we found that people who use Facebook for news were more likely to view both pro- and counter-attitudinal news in each wave

Facebook news and (de)polarization: reinforcing spirals in the 2016 US election. Michael A. Beam, Myiah J. Hutchens & Jay D. Hmielowski. Information, Communication & Society,  https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2018.1444783

ABSTRACT: The rise of social media, and specifically Facebook, as a dominant force in the flow of news in the United States has led to concern that people incur greater isolation from diverse perspectives through filter bubbles (from algorithmic filtering) and echo chambers (from an information environment populated by social recommendations coming from overwhelmingly like-minded others). This evolution in news diffusion comes at a time when Americans report increased affective partisan polarization. In particular, evidence shows increasingly negative attitudes about out-party members. Based on selective exposure and reinforcing spirals model perspectives, we examined the reciprocal relationship between Facebook news use and polarization using national 3-wave panel data collected during the 2016 US Presidential Election. Over the course of the campaign, we found media use and attitudes remained relatively stable. Our results also showed that Facebook news use was related to a modest over-time spiral of depolarization. Furthermore, we found that people who use Facebook for news were more likely to view both pro- and counter-attitudinal news in each wave. Our results indicated that counter-attitudinal news exposure increased over time, which resulted in depolarization. We found no evidence of a parallel model, where pro-attitudinal exposure stemming from Facebook news use resulted in greater affective polarization.

KEYWORDS: Selective exposure, reinforcing spirals, political polarization, Facebook, filter bubbles, echo chambers

‘Nest tying’ by wild chimpanzees at Bulindi—a variant of a universal great ape behavior?

Tie one on: ‘nest tying’ by wild chimpanzees at Bulindi—a variant of a universal great ape behavior? Matthew R. McLennan. Primates, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10329-018-0658-7

Abstract: With data accumulating from a growing pool of chimpanzee field studies, new behaviors as well as novel variants on common behaviors continue to be described. Nest construction is a universal behavior in wild great apes. Among chimpanzee populations, reported variation in nest building behavior mostly reflects environmental constraints. Despite the ubiquity of nest making by chimpanzees, only ground nesting has been recognized as a behavioral variant, potentially determined by both environmental and social factors. In a study of nests made by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Bulindi, Uganda, I identified a hitherto undescribed nest construction technique, termed ‘nest tying’. Five observed nests lacked strong weight-bearing structures beneath them, such as large branches or a supporting trunk. Instead, the nests appeared ‘tied’ (or ‘tethered’) to an adjacent trunk by looping leafy stems or palm fronds around it and interweaving these into the nest mattress, securing the nest against the trunk; thus, nest tying presumably functions to provide added stability and support. This preliminary report presents a description of the observed nests. Irrespective of whether nest tying constitutes true knot making—commonly considered absent in wild great apes—this nest construction technique would seem to require advanced dexterity and a sophisticated understanding of the mechanical properties of the plants used. Forest fragments in Bulindi are highly degraded. Thus, nest tying—and construction of integrated nests (i.e., utilizing multiple plants, often small trees and shrubs) generally—may be promoted by a relative paucity of suitable nesting trees at this site. Still, insofar as nest building is learned in chimpanzees, different construction techniques including nest tying are potentially acquired through social learning. Further investigation is required to ascertain the prevalence and acquisition of this nest construction technique at Bulindi, and to verify its presence or absence in other habitats.

In women, the biological pre-disposition to sexual problems seems to remain relatively stable over time, that is, environment has no influence

Burri A, Ogata S. Stability of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Female Sexual Functioning. The Journal of Sexual Medicine March 06 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2018.01.020


Background: Genetic factors have been implicated in the etiology of female sexual dysfunction. Yet, how much the dynamic nature of sexual functioning is influenced by changes in genetic and/or environmental factors remains unknown.

Aim: To explore temporal stability of genetic and environmental influences on female sexual functioning over a 4-year period.

Methods: Data on desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were collected in 2009 and 2013 using the Female Sexual Function Index and were available for 1,209 British twin women.
Outcomes: To track the stability of genetic influences the Female Sexual Function Index sub-domain and total scores were subject to multivariate twin analyses for repeated measures.

Results: Desire showed a lower heritability at follow-up (37% vs 14%) whereas for arousal and sexual pain the heritability at follow-up was higher compared to baseline (28% vs 34% and 30% vs 45%, respectively). The heritability of lubrication remained stable at 27%. According to the best-fitting additive environmental (AE) Cholesky model for all domains except for sexual pain there were no new genetic factors expressing themselves over the 4-year period, but an addition of new, unique environmental determinants could be observed. For sexual pain an additional genetic factor could be observed at follow-up, explaining 39% of the phenotypic variance.

Clinical Translation: The biological pre-disposition to sexual problems seems to remain relatively stable over time.

Conclusions: This is the first study to investigate the genetic stability of female sexual functioning in a large population sample of women. White ethnicity and the relatively high mean age of women asks for caution in extrapolating the findings to other ethnic and age groups. The findings highlight the value of more in-depth exploration of the non-shared environmental influences that could provide clues to the mechanisms behind remittance and/or persistence of sexual problems. Integration of these findings may provide a useful conceptual framework for the treatment and prevention of certain types of sexual problems.

Key Words: Female Sexual Functioning; Female Sexual Dysfunction; Genetics; Twins; Longitudinal

Zero-sum beliefs are pervasive. These beliefs seem to arise in part due to intuitive mercantilist beliefs that money has value over- and-above what it can purchase, since buyers are seen as less likely to benefit than sellers

Johnson, Samuel and Zhang, Jiewen and Keil, Frank, Psychological Underpinnings of Zero-Sum Thinking (January 28, 2018). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3117627 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3117627

Abstract: A core proposition in economics is that voluntary exchanges benefit both parties. We show that people often deny the mutually beneficial nature of exchange, instead using zero-sum thinking. Participants read about simple exchanges of goods and services, judging whether each party to the transaction was better off or worse off afterwards. These studies revealed that zero-sum beliefs are pervasive. These beliefs seem to arise in part due to intuitive mercantilist beliefs that money has value over- and-above what it can purchase, since buyers are seen as less likely to benefit than sellers, and barters are often seen as failing to benefit either party (Experiment 1). Zero-sum beliefs are greatly reduced by giving reasons for the exchange (Experiment 2), suggesting that a second mechanism underlying zero-sum thinking is a failure to spontaneously take the perspective of the buyer. Implications for politics and business are discussed.

Keywords: Intuitive theories, Folk psychology, Judgment & decision-making, Behavioral economics

Ten Things Career Changers Need on Their Resume

Ten Things Career Changers Need on Their Resume. By Alina Dizik. FINS, Sep 26 2011

In the last few years, executive resume writer Mary Elizabeth Bradford has noticed more of her clients seeking a career switch, even after having built successful careers in another field.

Nowadays, mid-level career changers -- such as software developers who now work in finance or entrepreneurs who come back into corporate life -- make up more than 45% of her practice. Many struggle to create an attention-grabbing resume, she says.

"The ability to objectively match up relevant skills to the position of choice is invaluable," Bradford says.

Eager to switch careers? Here are 10 ways to improve your resume:

Do a Comprehensive Rewrite

Most job candidates make a few quick changes to their resume before submitting it for a new role. If you are switching careers, re-analyze your skills during the editing process and include every area of the business that you've been able to impact, says Jill Smart, chief human resources officer at Accenture, a management consulting and technology firm with employees in 120 countries.

"People changing careers need to make sure their resume shows the full breadth of their skills -- operations, leadership, management, communication," explains Smart.

For example, Accenture hires former doctors to work in their health and public service practice. Their resumes need to demonstrate not only their relationship-building skills but also how they'll fit into the new business setting.

Use the New Job Description to Write a Summary Paragraph

Experts' opinions are mixed on the need for a resume summary or objective for those looking to stay in their field, but it's an important feature for a career changer, says Bonnie Marcus, a New York-based business coach and founder of Women's Success Coaching, a career coaching firm targeting women.

Include a summary paragraph at the top of your resume and tie "everything in the job description with everything you've accomplished in the past," she says.

For example, if the new position calls for online marketing expertise, make sure any marketing or Web experience is mentioned in this opening paragraph. Since most managers spend less than a minute scanning your resume, make sure the first thing they read ties directly to the job description.

Know What to Exclude

While conveying your skills is important, your resume shouldn't be a dumping ground for every minor accomplishment in your career, says resume expert Alesia Benedict, president of GetInterviews.com.

"Don't list tasks that are not relevant to the new career or you will simply reinforce that you should only be considered for your current type of position," Benedict says.

For example, an accountant shouldn't list certain routine bookkeeping duties if they are eager to leave accounting. Also avoid using specific company or industry terms or acronyms that are only known to those in your field.

Demonstrate Accomplishments With Numbers

Include bullet points that show how you've contributed to the bottom line. Numbers, especially those given in dollars, can quickly give hiring managers an idea of your contributions -- even in an unrelated field, says recruiter Craig Libis, founder of Executive Recruiting Consultants based in Dell Rapids, S.D.

While important on all resumes, for a career changer, numbers can be a simple way for hiring managers to relate to an unfamiliar work history. "Specific numbers [allow] the hiring company the ability to apply what the applicant can do for their company in the future," Libis says.

Add Relatable Job Title Descriptions

Adding a short descriptor after the official job title can help hiring managers easily identify your transferable skills.

"For example, if your job title was 'software engineer,' but you want to transition to project management, consider demonstrating the job title as 'Software Engineer (with a heavy emphasis on Project Management)'," Feldberg explains. But be careful not to exaggerate the truth. "You only want to use this approach if you can do it honestly," she adds.

Match up Keywords

When it comes to resume writing, keywords help you move past the electronic filters. For a career changer, that's the first potential barrier in stepping into a new role; a resume full of accounting keywords, for instance, will have a hard time getting past filters for a job in marketing.

Bradford recommends using job aggregator sites like Indeed.com to identify applicable keywords. Find several job postings for your ideal job, paste the job descriptions into a document and find keywords by highlighting any terms that are job descriptors or mention specific needed skills. Then pick out those keywords that match up with your previous experience and include them throughout the first page of your resume, says Bradford.

"Most job seekers are surprised how many matching and relevant skills they find in these job descriptions," she says.

Use a Mixed Format

When working with career switchers, resume writer Robyn Feldberg creates a functional-style resume on the first page and includes the traditional chronological format on the second page. "In other words, the first page looks like a glorified profile," says Dallas-based Feldberg who runs Abundant Success Coach, a career coaching and resume writing service.

Since the functional format focuses more on skills, you can use it to draw the hiring manager in with relevant experience without worrying about the chronology. Combining both resume formats helps to highlight the various transferable skills while still providing a look at the job history, she adds.

Drop Names to Show Previous Success

Showing that you've been able to succeed and work with established industry leaders in your previous career shouldn't be saved for the interview; instead, weave it into your resume to get a hiring manager's attention, says Theresa Szczurek, chief executive Radish Systems, a Boulder-based software firm. A bullet point may read: "Closed $2 million in new sales in 12 months with industry leaders XYZ," she explains.

Especially when applying for a position where you don't have prior experience, it's important to show that you've have the support of top industry leaders and were able to make a difference in your previous role.

Highlight Non-Work Related Experience

As a career changer, the extracurricular activities on your resume will carry more weight, say experts. Be sure to include activities that relate to your desired role like professional association memberships, volunteering, internships or part-time consulting.

For example, "if you're looking to move into Web or database development, volunteer [your] time ... creating a website or database for schools, churches, non-profits," and then highlight your role on your resume, suggests Mike McBrierty, chief operating officer of the technology staffing division of Eliassen Group, an IT recruiting firm based in Wakefield, Mass.

Find Natural Alignments

From a human resources perspective, there are certain accomplishments that are similar across different management structures and firms.

"Look for things about your current position that would have meaning to the person considering you for the new position," says Luke Tanen who left the music industry to work as the director of the Chicago Innovation Awards. For example, Tanen's mention of closing sponsorship deals was similarly impressive in both fields. "In seeing that the Chicago Innovation Awards were [free] in the job posting, I was quite certain that sponsors play a big role in this program. So I made a point to highlight it as my top bullet point from my past experience securing music sponsorships."

The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse in Institutions in Germany: Overall, 3.1% of adult respondents (women: 4.8%, men: 0.8%) reported abuse

The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse in Institutions: Results From a Representative Population-Based Sample in Germany. Andreas Witt et al. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1079063218759323

Abstract: The lifetime prevalence of sexual abuse in institutional settings in Germany was examined in a sample representative of the general adult population (N = 2,437). Participants completed a survey on whether they had ever experienced such abuse, its nature (contact, noncontact, forced sexual, intercourse), the type of institution (e.g. school, club), and the relationship of perpetrator to victim (peer, caregiver, staff member). Overall, 3.1% of adult respondents (women: 4.8%, men: 0.8%) reported having experienced some type of sexual abuse in institutions. Adult women reported higher rates of all types than did men, with rates of 3.9% versus 0.8% for contact sexual abuse, 1.2% versus 0.3% for noncontact sexual abuse, and 1.7% versus 0.2% for forced sexual intercourse. We conclude that a remarkable proportion of the general population experiences sexual abuse in institutions, underscoring the need for development of protective strategies. Especially, schools seem to represent good starting points for primary prevention strategies.

Keywords: abuse, child sexual abuse, sexual abuse, sexual offender, victim

How Counterfeits Infect Genuine Products: The Role of Moral Disgust

Amar, M., Ariely, D., Carmon, Z. and Yang, H. (2018), How Counterfeits Infect Genuine Products: The Role of Moral Disgust. J Consum Psychol. doi:10.1002/jcpy.1036

Abstract: We argue that moral disgust toward counterfeiting can degrade both the efficacy of products perceived to be counterfeits and that of genuine products resembling them. Five studies support our propositions and highlight the infectious nature of counterfeiting: Perceiving a product as a counterfeit made disgust more mentally accessible, and led participants to disinfect the item more and reduce how long they remained in physical contact with it (Study 1). Participants who perceived a mouse as a counterfeit, performed less well in a computer game using the mouse and expressed greater moral disgust, which mediated lowered performance (Study 2). Exposure to a supposedly counterfeit fountain pen in an unrelated prior task infected participants’ performance using a genuine ballpoint pen resembling the “counterfeit;” individual differences in moral attitudes moderated the effect (Study 3). Exposure to a supposedly counterfeit mouse infected performance with a genuine mouse of the same brand; moral disgust mediated this effect (Study 4). Finally, moral disgust mediated lowered efficacy of a supposed counterfeit and that of a genuine item resembling the “counterfeit” (Study 5).

Chimpanzees but not orangutans display aversive reactions toward their partner receiving a superior reward

Chimpanzees but not orangutans display aversive reactions toward their partner receiving a superior reward. Yena Kim et al. bioRxiv, https://doi.org/10.1101/274803

Abstract: Fairness judgment is a fundamental aspect of human cooperation. By carefully balancing the payoffs and efforts with cooperating partner (s) we could either avoid or punish cheaters and stably maintain cooperation. Recent studies investigating the origin of this fairness sentiment have demonstrated that this psychological trait is not unique to humans, but also can be observed in other group-living primates, such as chimpanzees and capuchins, suggesting a convergent evolution of a sense of fairness, with cooperative social life being the selective pressure for it. The current study was designed to test this hypothesis by directly comparing the response to the outcome inequity in two of our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and orangutans, having different social systems, i.e. solitary and patrilocal multi-male multi-female groups. Unlike other inequity experiments, we used a prosocial choice apparatus with different reward distributions (advantageous / disadvantageous) to give subjects an active role of not-sharing foods if they considered it unfair. In addition to the choice, we also recorded the behavioral responses of the apes to the inequity. Throughout the experiments aversive emotional responses toward the disadvantageous inequity were only found in chimpanzees, but not in orangutans, supporting the convergent (or domain-specific) evolution of a sense of fairness. However, this aversion to the inequity did not lead the chimpanzees to actually make selfish choices, indirectly supporting the previous findings that chimpanzees employ a partner choice strategy rather than a punishment for fair cooperation. We also found that hierarchy seems to play an important role in the expression of aversion to inequity and prosocial tendency in chimpanzees.