Saturday, April 8, 2023

Higher Intelligence was positively related to the ability to lie, but only in spoken, not written, statements

Are Intelligent People Better Liars? Relationships between Cognitive Abilities and Credible Lying. Justyna SarzyƄska-Wawer, Krzysztof Hanusz, Aleksandra Pawlak, Julia Szymanowska and Aleksander Wawer. J. Intell. 2023, 11(4), 69; April 3 2023.

Abstract: Lying is essential to social communication. Despite years of research, its detection still poses many challenges. This is partly because some individuals are perceived as truthful and reliable, even when lying. However, relatively little is known about these effective liars. In our study, we focused on the cognitive functioning of effective liars. We tested 400 participants who completed tasks measuring executive functions, verbal fluency, and fluid intelligence, and also made four statements (two true and two false, half of them written and half oral). The reliability of the statements was then assessed. Only fluid intelligence was found to be relevant for reliable lying. This relationship was only evident for oral statements, suggesting that the importance of intelligence is highlighted when statements are made spontaneously without prior preparation.

Keywords: deception; deception detection; cognitive functions; intelligence

A new mode of reproduction in animals: In the yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, the males are all chimeras, a collection of haploid cells with only maternal or paternal genetic material

Obligate chimerism in male yellow crazy ants. H. Darras et al. Science, Apr 6 2023, Vol 380, Issue 6640, pp. 55-58. DOI: 10.1126/science.adf0419

A new mode of reproduction in animals: Multicellular organisms typically develop from a single cell into a collection of cells that all have the same genetic material. Darras et al. discovered a deviation from this developmental hallmark in the yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes. Males of this species are all chimeras, a collection of haploid cells with only maternal or paternal genetic material (see the Perspective by Kronauer). These chimeras develop from fertilized eggs in which parental nuclei divide independently. Genetic analyses show that this unusual mode of reproduction is probably the result of a genetic conflict between two co-occurring lineages. —DJ

Abstract: Multicellular organisms typically develop from a single fertilized egg and therefore consist of clonal cells. We report an extraordinary reproductive system in the yellow crazy ant. Males are chimeras of haploid cells from two divergent lineages: R and W. R cells are overrepresented in the males’ somatic tissues, whereas W cells are overrepresented in their sperm. Chimerism occurs when parental nuclei bypass syngamy and divide separately within the same egg. When syngamy takes place, the diploid offspring either develops into a queen when the oocyte is fertilized by an R sperm or into a worker when fertilized by a W sperm. This study reveals a mode of reproduction that may be associated with a conflict between lineages to preferentially enter the germ line.

Incels (and non-incel single men) significantly overestimated the importance of physical-attractiveness & financial prospects to women, &underestimated the importance of intelligence, kindness & understanding, loyalty/dependability, & humor

Costello, William, Vania Rolon, Andrew G. Thomas, and David P. Schmitt. 2023. “The Mating Psychology of Incels (involuntary Celibates): Misfortunes, Misperceptions and Misrepresentations.” OSF Preprints. April 3. doi:10.31219/

Abstract: Finding and retaining a mate are recurring and fundamental adaptive problems for humans. Yet there is a growing community of men, called incels (involuntary celibates) who have forged a sense of identity around their perceived inability to solve these problems. Despite significant mainstream media speculation about the potential sexual/mating psychology of incels, this has yet to be formally investigated in the scientific literature, partly due to the “hard-to-reach” nature of this group. In the first formal investigation of incel mating psychology, we compared a sample (n = 151) of self-identified male incels with non-incel males who were single (n = 150) across a range of measures. We found that, compared to non-incels, incel men have a lower sense of self-perceived mate-value and a greater external locus of control regarding their singlehood. Contrary to mainstream media narratives, incels also reported lower minimum standards for mate-preferences than non-incels. Incels (and non-incel single men) significantly overestimated the importance of physical-attractiveness and financial prospects to women, and underestimated the importance of intelligence, kindness and understanding, loyalty and dependability, and humor. Furthermore, incels underestimated women’s overall minimum mate preference standards more generally. Further exploratory analyses showed that incels are significantly shorter in height than non-incels, which could act as a barrier to selection in the mating market. We also found that incels who use forums believe that participating in the forums made their opinion of women worse. Taken together, these factors could have a deleterious effect on their mating prospects. These findings suggest that incels represent a newly identified group to target for evolutionary-psychology-informed interventions. Such interventions could help challenge cognitive distortions around female mate preferences and improve their mating intelligence and overall well-being. Other implications and directions for future research are discussed.