Monday, July 1, 2019

Return the favour: Preverbal infants represent direct reciprocity

Return the favour: Preverbal infants represent direct reciprocity. Joakim Haugane Zahl, Erik Kjos Fonn, Oda Eidjar, Lotte Thomsen. Human Behavior and Evolution Society 31st annual meeting. Boston 2019.

Abstract> If direct reciprocity sustains selective altruism and cooperation among non-kin (Trivers, 1971), early-developing representations of reciprocity might evolve to facilitate the navigation of such social relations. Here, we show that preverbal infants represent direct reciprocity. We familiarized 32 7-12 month-old infants to a scenario with three novel agents where the benefactor gave one of his two apples to the beneficiary who had none (the third agent simply had one apple). In test trials the former beneficiary now had two apples, while both other agents had none. In Expected trials it  reciprocated by giving its surplus apple to its former benefactor, in Unexpected trials it instead gave it to the third agent. We found that nine-to-twelve month-olds looked longer at unexpected than expected trials (M_unexpected=27,8 seconds; M_expected=21,5; p<.0005, BF10>550), indicating that they expected agents to act reciprocally, but 7-8 month-olds did not. A second study demonstrated that reciprocity is generalized across resources (receiving an apple and returning a banana). Two control studies demonstrated that these effects are specific to resource distributions among self-propelled, intentional agents and not accounted for by low-level mechanisms of mere association.

Pseudo-opinions (commenting on fictitious questions, even though they should not really have an opinion): Up to 69% of the respondents give a substantive opinion on the fictitious questionnaires; the better educated sin more.

Wolter F., Junkermann J. (2019) Antwortvalidität in Survey-Interviews: Meinungsäußerungen zu fiktiven Dingen (=approx. Response validity in survey interviews: expressions of opinion on fictitious things). In: Menold N., Wolbring T. (eds) Qualitätssicherung sozialwissenschaftlicher Erhebungsinstrumente. Schriftenreihe der ASI - Arbeitsgemeinschaft Sozialwissenschaftlicher Institute. Springer VS, Wiesbaden. December 30 2018 DOI

Abstract (automatic translation): The article examines the extent and factors influencing the expression of pseudo-Opinions. By this is meant the often documented phenomenon, according to which respondents also comment on fictitious, fictitious questions, even though they should not really have an opinion. The relevance arises on the one hand from the assumption that some respondents do not know real existing question objects, but still express an opinion. The results of such surveys would be distorted. On the other hand, the study of pseudo-Opinions allows to study the process of socially desirable responses with respect to the extent and determinants of a response bias. In addition to sociodemographic influencing factors and measures for incentives through social desirability, in particular the response reaction time as a proxy for the degree of cognitive elaboration is examined for its influence. This is done on the basis of theoretical considerations on respondent behavior, i.a. from the frame selection theory. In the CATI study (N = 499) conducted in Mainz, respondents were asked three fictitious sights in Mainz. It turns out that the amount of response bias through pseudo-Opinions is considerable; Up to 69% of the respondents give a substantive opinion on the fictitious questionnaires. In addition, the propensity to distorting responses varies according to simple socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and education. An effect of the response response time can only be determined for one of the items. Here the latency acts negatively, i. Thinking longer when answering the question leads to fewer pseudo-opinions and thus less distorted data.

Greece: Nearly 40% of those who were single were involuntarily so; they experienced significantly more negative emotions & lower life satisfaction than voluntary singles & people in a relationship

The Price of Singlehood: Assessing the Impact of Involuntary Singlehood on Emotions and Life Satisfaction. Menelaos Apostolou, Ioanna Matogian, Georgia Koskeridou, Marios Shialos, Polixeni Georgiadou. Evolutionary Psychological Science, July 1 2019.

Abstract: A considerable proportion of people living in Western societies are single, i.e., they do not have an intimate partner. Recent research has indicated that about half of these instances are involuntary—people want to be in a relationship, but face difficulties in attracting partners. Within the context of an evolutionary theoretical framework, the current study aims to estimate the occurrence of involuntary singlehood in the Greek cultural context and to assess its impact on emotional wellbeing and on life satisfaction. Using an online sample of 735 Greek-speaking participants (431 women and 304 men), it was found that nearly 40% of those who were single were involuntarily so. It was also found that involuntary singles experienced significantly more negative emotions and lower life satisfaction than voluntary singles and people in a relationship.

Keywords: Singlehood Involuntary singlehood Emotions Life satisfaction Mating