Thursday, February 4, 2021

Sex Differences in Mate Preferences Across 45 Countries - A Large-Scale Replication in 45 Countries

Sex Differences in Mate Preferences Across 45 Countries: A Large-Scale Replication. Kathryn V. Walter et al. Psychological Science, March 20, 2020.

h/t David Schmitt Mate Preferences Across 45 Countries: A Large-Scale Replication...Support for universal sex differences in preferences remains robust...Beyond age of partner, neither pathogens nor gender equality robustly predicted sex differences across countries

Abstract: Considerable research has examined human mate preferences across cultures, finding universal sex differences in preferences for attractiveness and resources as well as sources of systematic cultural variation. Two competing perspectives—an evolutionary psychological perspective and a biosocial role perspective—offer alternative explanations for these findings. However, the original data on which each perspective relies are decades old, and the literature is fraught with conflicting methods, analyses, results, and conclusions. Using a new 45-country sample (N = 14,399), we attempted to replicate classic studies and test both the evolutionary and biosocial role perspectives. Support for universal sex differences in preferences remains robust: Men, more than women, prefer attractive, young mates, and women, more than men, prefer older mates with financial prospects. Cross-culturally, both sexes have mates closer to their own ages as gender equality increases. Beyond age of partner, neither pathogen prevalence nor gender equality robustly predicted sex differences or preferences across countries.

Keywords: mate preferences, sex differences, cross-cultural studies, evolutionary psychology, biosocial role theory, open data, preregistered

Check also How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences? Daniel Conroy-Beam. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, June 11, 2015.

Abstract: Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences.

Keywords: mate selection, sex differences, multivariate analysis, cross-cultural analysis

And Conroy-Beam, D., & Buss, D. M. (2019). Why is age so important in human mating? Evolved age preferences and their influences on multiple mating behaviors. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 13(2), 127-157.

We find that cell phone vibrations of intermediate length (400ms) evoke a reward response, particularly among younger & more impulsive consumers, which in turn boosts purchasing in online shopping

Hampton, William H., and Christian Hildebrand. 2021. “Pavlov’s Buzz? Mobile Vibrations as Conditioned Rewards.” PsyArXiv. February 4.

Abstract: People spend a large portion of their day interacting with vibrating mobile devices, yet how we respond to the vibrotactile sensations emitted by these devices, and their effect on consumer decision-making is largely unknown. Integrating recent work on haptic sensory processing and classical conditioning, the current research examines: (1) the relationship between vibration duration and reward response, (2) to what extent rewarding vibrations modify consumer decision-making, and (3) the underlying mechanism of this effect. We find that mobile vibrations of intermediate length (400ms) evoke a reward response, particularly among younger and more impulsive consumers, which in turn boosts purchasing in ecological online shopping environments. We examine mobile vibration in a variety of experimental settings, drawing on a diverse participant pool, leveraging both controlled experiments and a large, country-wide field experiment to assess theoretically- and practically-important boundary conditions. We further examine the mechanism of this effect, providing direct evidence that vibrations influence consumers due to classical conditioning, such that vibrations become rewarding due to their learned association with positive mobile events. Our findings have important implications for the effective design of haptic interfaces in marketing and the role of mobile vibration stimuli as a novel form of reward.

‘You can’t bullshit a bullshitter’ (or can you?): Bullshitting frequency predicts receptivity to various types of misleading information

‘You can’t bullshit a bullshitter’ (or can you?): Bullshitting frequency predicts receptivity to various types of misleading information. Shane Littrell  Evan F. Risko  Jonathan A. Fugelsang. British Journal of Social Psychology, February 4 2021.

Rolf Degen's take: Notorious bullshitters are particularly bad at seeing through the bullshit of others.

Abstract: Research into both receptivity to falling for bullshit and the propensity to produce it have recently emerged as active, independent areas of inquiry into the spread of misleading information. However, it remains unclear whether those who frequently produce bullshit are inoculated from its influence. For example, both bullshit receptivity and bullshitting frequency are negatively related to cognitive ability and aspects of analytic thinking style, suggesting that those who frequently engage in bullshitting may be more likely to fall for bullshit. However, separate research suggests that individuals who frequently engage in deception are better at detecting it, thus leading to the possibility that frequent bullshitters may be less likely to fall for bullshit. Here, we present three studies (N = 826) attempting to distinguish between these competing hypotheses, finding that frequency of persuasive bullshitting (i.e., bullshitting intended to impress or persuade others) positively predicts susceptibility to various types of misleading information and that this association is robust to individual differences in cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style.

Men and women are equally interested in being the recipient of sexual behaviours while they sleep; this particular interest (proposed term "dormaphilia") opens up new and interesting research questions

Somnophilia: Examining Its Various Forms and Associated Constructs. Elizabeth T. Deehan, Ross M. Bartels. Sexual Abuse, November 15, 2019.

Abstract: Somnophilia refers to the interest in having sex with a sleeping person. Using an online sample of 437 participants, the present study provides the first empirical examination of somnophilia, its various forms, and theorized correlates. Participants completed the newly developed Somnophilia Interest and Proclivity Scale, which comprises three subscales (active consensual, passive consensual, and active nonconsensual somnophilia). To test hypotheses about the convergent and divergent validity of different paraphilic interests, participants also completed scales measuring necrophilic, rape-related, and sadistic/masochistic sexual fantasies, rape proclivity, and the need for sexual dominance/submission. Male participants scored higher than females on all scales except the passive subscale. For both males and females, each subscale was associated most strongly with conceptually congruent variables. These results support existing theoretical assumptions about somnophilia, as well as offering newer insights, such as distinguishing between active and passive somnophilia. Limitations and implications for further research are discussed.

Keywords: somnophilia, necrophilia, paraphilia, biastophilia, sexual fantasy, dormaphilia