Sunday, May 20, 2018

Feminist ≠ Feminine? Feminist Women Are Visually Masculinized Whereas Feminist Men Are Feminized

Feminist ≠ Feminine? Feminist Women Are Visually Masculinized Whereas Feminist Men Are Feminized. Aleksander B. Gundersen, Jonas R. Kunst. Sex Roles,

Abstract: Many people hold negative stereotypes about feminists. Verbally, feminist women are often described in masculine terms whereas feminist men tend to be described in feminine terms. Here, we demonstrate that these effects extend to a fundamental perceptual level, more specifically, to the domain of face perception even in Norway, the most gender-egalitarian country of the world. Four studies were conducted using a data-driven reverse-correlation technique to test how feminist women and men are visually represented. In Studies 1 (n = 123) and 2 (n = 61), Norwegians had more masculine-looking and less feminine-looking visual representations of feminist women as compared to women with moderate gender-related beliefs or other activist identities (i.e., the control conditions). These effects, which were particularly pronounced among male participants and those with stronger hostile sexist beliefs, further explained why feminist women were perceived as threatening. In Studies 3 (n = 131) and 4 (n = 74), participants had a less masculine-looking visual representation of feminist men as compared to the control condition. This effect was especially pronounced among female participants. In addition, effects were again moderated by hostile sexism, such that participants with stronger hostile sexist beliefs visualized the feminist man as less masculine than the man in the control condition. In sum, the results suggest that people have asymmetrically gendered visual representations of feminist women and men. Feminist women are visually represented as more masculine whereas the opposite is true for feminist men. We discuss our findings in light of women’s and men’s reluctance to identify as feminists and suggest potential interventions to change biased visual representations of feminists.

From 2011 but actual as ever: Bennett's Pandering for Profit, The Transformation of Health Charities to Lobbyists

Bennett, James T., Pandering for Profit: The Transformation of Health Charities to Lobbyists (December 14, 2011). GMU Working Paper in Economics No. 11-54.

Abstract: This study explores the metamorphosis of three major voluntary health agencies — American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, and American Lung Association — from charities supported primary by donations into lobbying organizations seeking taxpayers’ funds and grants from commercial enterprises in exchange for supporting private or political initiatives only peripherally related to their charitable missions. Prior to the 1980s, lobbying was all but nonexistent, limited to seeking increased funding for disease research. Fearing loss of tax-exempt status, health charities largely avoided political advocacy. The AIDS movement revealed that vast sums could be acquired from government by intense lobbying, and this advocacy evidently did not threaten tax-exempt status. All three of these charities copied the AIDS movement and targeted tobacco tax revenues at the state level. The American Lung Association, in particular, has acted as a public relations flack for both government agencies and corporations — selling its charitable reputation as a selfless entity concerned only with public health for self-interested purposes. The implications of this transition for both the charities themselves and the public interest are analyzed and discussed.

During a comedy routine, alcohol consumption enhanced enjoyment (Duchenne) smiles-but not nonenjoyment social smiles-and elevated mood ratings

The effects of alcohol on positive emotion during a comedy routine: A facial coding analysis. Sayette MA, Creswell KG, Fairbairn CE, Dimoff JD, Bentley K, Lazerus T. Emotion. 2018 May 17. doi: 10.1037/emo0000451

Abstract: There is considerable interest in understanding the emotional effects of alcohol. While a great deal of experimental research has focused on alcohol's ability to relieve negative emotions, there has been far less focus on the effects of alcohol on positive emotions. Further, the available research on positive emotion tends to test alcohol while participants are alone. Yet alcohol is often consumed in social settings, and enhancing social pleasure is consistently identified as being a primary motive for drinking. We aimed to address this gap in the literature by investigating the impact of alcohol on positive emotional experience in a social setting. We used the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) to examine in a large sample the effects of alcohol on response to comedy in a group setting. Five hundred thirteen social drinkers (51.9% female) were assembled into groups of three unacquainted persons and administered either a moderate dose of alcohol, a placebo, or a nonalcohol control beverage. Following beverage consumption, groups listened to a roughly 5-min comedy clip while their facial expressions were video recorded. More than 5 million frames of video were then FACS-coded. Alcohol consumption enhanced enjoyment (Duchenne) smiles-but not nonenjoyment social smiles-and elevated mood ratings. Results provide multimodal evidence supporting the ability of alcohol to enhance positive emotional experience during a comedy routine delivered in a social context. More broadly, this research illustrates the value of studying emotion in a social context using both self-report and behavior-expressive approaches.

Gay Native American Males maintain greater numbers of kin, siblings, & greater means of offspring among relatives, in support of Sexually Antagonistic Hypothesis for Male Homosexuality and the Fraternal Birth Order Effect

Austin, Samuel w., "Fertility and Reproduction's Niche: Human Sexual Diversity" (2017). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers, Montana Univ. 11006.

Abstract: Biologically exploring the origins and forms of human sexuality is of paramount importance. Scientific research has indicated that homosexuality was linked to reproduction, fertility, and adaptive child caring strategies, traits that seem to display cross-cultural similarities. This suggests that sexual diversity may be one of human’s earliest adaptations. While most of the previous research has been on individuals of European descent, little research on Native American populations has been completed to test whether these patterns continue in their population.

The research presented here tests the Sexually Antagonistic Hypothesis for Male Homosexuality, Fraternal Birth Order Effect, and childhood atypical gender behaviors among Native American Males. A questionnaire was administered to 45 Androphilic Native American Males and 40 Gynephilic Native American Males (control sample). Androphilic Native Males maintain greater numbers of kin, siblings, and greater means of offspring among relatives than gynephilic Native Males; yet these groups only maintained statistically significantly larger numbers of offspring for paternal and maternal grandmothers.

In support of the Fraternal Birth Order Effect, Androphilic Native Males had greater means for older brothers and older sisters, despite 23 out of 45 (51%) total androphilic males had reported to be the first males born among their siblings. However, the two groups failed to maintain statistically significance, which is potentially due to a sampling error as a large number of androphilic respondents reported to be first born.

The recalled childhood behaviors statistically demonstrate that Androphilic Native Males exhibited greater female roles and behaviors, and less male roles and behaviors than Gynephilic Native Males. Native American males maintain patterns that are consistent to support the presence of mechanisms for Sexual Antagonism and Fraternal Birth Order Effect. Future research seeks to elucidate these findings for clarity and expand on the sample size.

Significant genetic correlation between personality traits associated with progressive political ambition & military service: military service represents a different form of political participation to which individuals are genetically predisposed

Personality and Genetic Associations With Military Service. Matthew R. Miles, Donald P. Haider-Markel. Armed Forces & Society,

Abstract: Existing literature connects military service to regional characteristics and family traditions, creating real distinctions between those who serve and those who do not. We engage this discussion by examining military service as a function of personality. In the second portion, we examine military service as predisposed by genetics. Our findings indicate there is a significant heritability component of serving in the military. We find a significant genetic correlation between personality traits associated with progressive political ambition and military service, suggesting that military service represents a different form of political participation to which individuals are genetically predisposed. We discuss the long-term implications of our findings for policy makers and recruiters.

Keywords: recruitment/retention, public policy, psychology, political science

Are Free Will Believers Nicer People? (four Studies Suggest Not)

Crone, Damien, and Neil L Levy 2018. “Are Free Will Believers Nicer People? (four Studies Suggest Not)”. PsyArXiv. May 19. doi:10.17605/OSF.IO/ZPJ5X

Abstract: Free will is widely considered a foundational component of Western moral and legal codes, and yet current conceptions of free will are widely thought to fit uncomfortably with much research in psychology and neuroscience. Recent research investigating the consequences of laypeople’s free will beliefs (FWBs) for everyday moral behavior suggest that stronger FWBs are associated with various desirable moral characteristics (e.g., greater helpfulness, less dishonesty). These findings have sparked concern regarding the potential for moral degeneration throughout society as science promotes a view of human behavior that is widely perceived to undermine the notion of free will. We report four studies (combined N = 921) originally concerned with possible mediators and/or moderators of the abovementioned associations. Unexpectedly, we found no association between FWBs and moral behavior. Our findings suggest that the FWB – moral behavior association (and accompanying concerns regarding decreases in FWBs causing moral degeneration) may be overstated.