Saturday, March 3, 2018

Are personality traits a good predictors of the type of watched pornography? Analysis of the relationship between personality traits and the preference of a chosen pornographic categories

Are personality traits a good predictors of the type of watched pornography? Analysis of the relationship between personality traits and the preference of a chosen pornographic categories. Rafał Gerymski, Institute of Psychology, Opole University.

Abstract: The aim of this work was the further exploration of the relationship between selected personality factors and the preference of a given type of pornography. Data from 136 respondents aged between 19 and 56 years was used for the analysis. Selected personality traits were examined using the TIPI-PL questionnaire. Subjects were presented with 25 categories of pornographic films and were asked to select the keywords they use to search for pornography on the Internet. Data exploration has shown that the viewers of pornographic films are characterized by a significantly higher level of extraversion and emotional stability in relation to people who do not use pornography. In addition, it was shown that openness to experience turned out to be a significant predictor of the preferences of pornographic categories such as „BDSM”, „group sex” or „big penis”. Further research should take into account other features of the human psyche that may be related to pornographic preferences and examine the attractiveness of a given type of pornography.

Myths and Misconceptions in Developmental and Neuro-Psychology

Myths and Misconceptions in Developmental and Neuro-Psychology. Adrian Furnham. Psychology, Vol.9 No.2, February 2018. DOI 10.4236/psych.2018.92016

ABSTRACT: The current study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions in two areas of psychology: Developmental and Neuro-Psychology. In all 220 participants completed two questionnaires both derived from two recently published books, in which they rated to what extent, they thought various statements/facts about the brain and about child development were True or False. A large number of these myths were rated as True (Definitely or Partly) indicating the extent to which people had misconceptions about this area of psychology. There were few significant demographic correlates of the total correct score (determined by rating the myth as False) indicating no clear pattern in what sort of person has these misconceptions. Implications and limitations are discussed.

KEYWORDS: Psychology, Education, Myths, Misconceptions, Psychological Knowledge, Misrepresentations

Check also Seven myths of memory. Nicola S. Clayton, , Clive Wilkins. Behavioural Processes,

And Class Dis-Mythed: Exploring the Prevalence and Perseverance of Myths in Upper-Level Psychology Courses. Michael Root and Caroline Stanley.

And Dispelling the Myth: Training in Education or Neuroscience Decreases but Does Not Eliminate Beliefs in Neuromyths. Kelly Macdonald et al. Frontiers in Psychology, Aug 10 2017.

People tend to rate low their ability to tell lies convincingly and at the same time believe that they are better lie detectors than the average person. Study of personality, demographic and psychophysiological correlates

Chapter 15 – Personality, Demographic, and Psychophysiological Correlates of People's Self-Assessed Lying Abilities. Eitan Elaad. In Detecting Concealed Information and Deception, 2018, Pages 353–376,

Abstract: Previous research indicated that people tend to rate low their ability to tell lies convincingly and at the same time believe that they are better lie detectors than the average person. The present chapter highlights correlations of the low self-assessed lie-telling ability and of the relatively high self-assessed lie-detection ability. A mini metaanalysis was performed on observations gathered from 16 experimental groups. The analysis shows demographic differences in these assessments. It was observed that religiosity, gender, age, and on-the-job lie-related experience, are moderators of the lie-telling and lie-detection ability assessments. Personality dimensions such as the Big Five attributes are also associated with people's lie-related ability assessments. It was further observed that high lie-telling ability raters preferred plausible deception over implausible truth. Finally, larger physiological responses to critical items in the Concealed Information Test were found among high lie-telling ability raters. Suggestions for future research are provided.

Keywords: Age; Big five; Concealed information test; Lie-detection ability; Lie-telling ability; Lying preference; Mini metaanalysis; Religiosity; Self-assessments

A Case of Pathological Collecting Behavior

Pathological collecting behavior. Michitaka Funayama et al. Cortex,

Here we describe the development of pathological collecting behavior, which was observed in a patient with right orbitofrontal damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage [...]. His pathological collection behavior was first noticed 11 years post-onset (at age 59) when he began searching out detergents, newspapers, bottles of milk and beer, and hangers every day, mainly from garbage dumps [...]. At age 66, he began washing window screens and his car and cleaning his bathroom several times per day.

At age 76, during his stereotypical automobile washing, he removed the license plate to thouroughly wash underneath it; while doing so, he dropped a screw for the fight side of his car's license plate into the sewer. He was unable to retrieve the screw, and henceforth he began stealing screws from only the right side of license plates of other people's cars. His wife warned him not to collect them, and he always told her that he would never do it again; moreover, he surely knew that stealing was not permitted under any circumstances. However, he collected more than 50 screws over the following 2 months, but eventually he was arrested and again hospitalized in our psychiatry ward. Notably, even after his discharge from our ward, he could still work as a salesclerk at his liquor store.

From Swiping to Casual Sex and/or Committed Relationships: Exploring the Experiences of Tinder Users

From Swiping to Casual Sex and/or Committed Relationships: Exploring the Experiences of Tinder Users. Elisabeth Timmermans, Cédric Courtois. The Information Society 34(2), March 2018, DOI 10.1080/01972243.2017.1414093

Abstract: To better understand if and how the mechanics of the process Tinder imposes on its users (i.e., swiping, matching, and starting conversations) influences the resulting sexual or romantic interactions, we collected data from 1038 Belgian Tinder users. Our findings show that a user’s swiping quantity does not guarantee a higher number of Tinder matches, women have generally more matches than men and men usually have to start a conversation on Tinder. Moreover, while having conversations was positively associated with reporting having had offline Tinder encounters, less than half of our sample reported having had an offline meeting with another Tinder user. Whereas more than one third of those offline encounters lead to casual sex, more than a quarter of those offline encounters result in the formation of a committed relationship. Such findings indicate that Tinder is not “just a hookup app”, as often assumed in public discourse. We argue it is plausible that sexual encounters will eventually lead to committed relationships in a society where initiation of relationship formation with dating has been replaced by hooking up.

Comments to "If Christianity or Communism were called diseases, would they then look for the chemical and genetic “causes” of these “conditions”?"

A person wrote in Facebook's Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology group:  "Psychiatrists look for twisted molecules and defective genes as the causes of schizophrenia, because schizophrenia is the name of a disease. If Christianity or Communism were called diseases, would they then look for the chemical and genetic “causes” of these “conditions”?
     Thomas Szasz, Hungarian psychiatrist

It seems that there are several contributions of biological nature to our social behavior.

1  Regarding Communism:

1.1  "We document a statistically significant and robust positive relation between risk aversion and the demand for redistribution that is also economically important. We show that previously used proxies for risk aversion (such as being an entrepreneur or having a history of unemployment) do not capture the effect of our measure of risk aversion but have distinctly different effects on the demand for redistribution." From Individual risk preferences and the demand for redistribution. Manja Gärtner, Johanna Mollerstrom and David Seim. Journal of Public Economics, v 153, September 2017, Pages 49-55.

1.2  There are several species in which inequity aversion has been measured, like common marmosets.

Or check this: Social inequality aversion in mice: Analysis with stress-induced hyperthermia and behavioral preference. Shigeru Watanabe. Learning and Motivation, Volume 59, August 2017, Pages 38-46,

Which is why some suspect that there is an "Evolutionary Origin of Empathy and Inequality Aversion"

1.3  Even in dictator's games, we try to avoid the taking version, and prefer the giving version: "Over 85% of the dictators in our experiment choose to play a giving game over a taking game when the payoff possibilities are identical and, on average, dictators are willing to sacrifice over 31% of their endowment to avoid taking."

2  Regarding religiosity:

2.1  there are good reasons to believe that religiosity is a substantially heritable trait. Good summary here: "The Future of Secularism: A Biologically Informed Theory Supplemented with Cross-Cultural Evidence"

2.2  "In spite of increased secularization in American culture and a growing distrust of organized religion, religious involvement, personal religiosity, and spirituality are still viewed as highly desirable characteristics." Examining Social Desirability in Measures of Religion and Spirituality Using the Bogus Pipeline. Ann E. Jones and Marta Elliott. Review of Religious Research. March 2017, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 47–64.

2.3  Being Atheist is linked to genes, which is a way to say than being religious is linked to the other genes. See The Mutant Says in His Heart, “There Is No God”: the Rejection of Collective Religiosity Centred Around the Worship of Moral Gods Is Associated with High Mutational Load. Edward Dutton, Guy Madison, Curtis Dunkel. Evolutionary Psychological Science,

These authors are not saying that genetics make us more religious than not, or more redistributive than not, as an originally predetermined outcome... What they say is that being redistributive and religious was favored by the ancestors, and those with such behaviours reproduced better (more than the others), and are now dominant behaviors.

Of course, we don't know if that is a good idea or not, but we can discuss such theories, since they help explain observed behaviors.

Disclaimer: I am an Atheist (although I am not mad at religous people, I respect them).