Monday, June 3, 2019

Political and nonpolitical considerations on roommate selection: Partisanship strongly influences this social decision even in the presence of nonpolitical-but-politically-correlated individuating information, outweighing cleanliness

Political Considerations in Nonpolitical Decisions: A Conjoint Analysis of Roommate Choice. Richard M. Shafranek. Political Behavior, June 3 2019. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11109-019-09554-9

Abstract: Research shows the increasing tendency of partisan considerations to influence decisions outside the context of politics, including residential choice. Scholars attribute this tendency to affective distaste for members of the other party. However, little work has investigated the relative influence of political and nonpolitical factors in these situations—and it has not sufficiently ruled out alternative explanations for these phenomena. Do people mainly choose to socially avoid members of the other party for political reasons, or is partisanship simply perceived to be correlated with relevant nonpolitical considerations? In some settings, political affiliation may serve primarily as a cue for other factors. As a result, studies that manipulate partisanship but fail to include other individuating information may exaggerate partisanship’s importance in these decisions. To address this shortcoming, I assess the impact of political and nonpolitical considerations on roommate selection via conjoint analysis. I find that partisanship strongly influences this social decision even in the presence of nonpolitical-but-politically-correlated individuating information. Partisan preferences are also moderated by roommates’ perceived levels of political interest. Finally, other social traits do matter, but how they matter depends on partisanship. Specifically, partisans report increased willingness to live with counter-stereotypic out-partisans. This suggests that partisan social divides may be more easily bridged by individuals with cross-cutting identities.

Keywords: Partisanship Affective polarization Homophily Conjoint

Of two persons with six fingers on their hands, MRI revealed that it is actuated by extra muscles & nerves, & fMRI identified a distinct cortical representation of the extra finger; were able with only one hand of tasks normally requiring 2

Augmented manipulation ability in humans with six-fingered hands. C. Mehring, M. Akselrod, L. Bashford, M. Mace, H. Choi, M. Bl├╝her, A.-S. Buschhoff, T. Pistohl, R. Salomon, A. Cheah, O. Blanke, A. Serino & E. Burdet. Nature Communications 10, Article number: 2401 (2019). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-10306-w

Abstract: Neurotechnology attempts to develop supernumerary limbs, but can the human brain deal with the complexity to control an extra limb and yield advantages from it? Here, we analyzed the neuromechanics and manipulation abilities of two polydactyly subjects who each possess six fingers on their hands. Anatomical MRI of the supernumerary finger (SF) revealed that it is actuated by extra muscles and nerves, and fMRI identified a distinct cortical representation of the SF. In both subjects, the SF was able to move independently from the other fingers. Polydactyly subjects were able to coordinate the SF with their other fingers for more complex movements than five fingered subjects, and so carry out with only one hand tasks normally requiring two hands. These results demonstrate that a body with significantly more degrees-of-freedom can be controlled by the human nervous system without causing motor deficits or impairments and can instead provide superior manipulation abilities.


Sexual Medicine Health Care Professionals Sexual Behavior and Practices: 32% of those surveyed have had sex in the office

Behind Closed Doors: Assessing Sexual Medicine Health Care Professionals Sexual Behavior and Practices. M. Krychman. Journal of Sexual Medicine, June 2019, Volume 16, Issue 6, Supplement 3, Page S23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.03.506

Abstract: It is a common believed misperception that those who treat sexual medicine conditions enjoy an active robust sexual life with their partners. The perception is that medical professionals who treat male and sexual problems are more sexually active, experimental in their behavior and have a willingness to discuss sexually related topics in public forums unrelated to work. A survey was conducted to assess the sexual behavior of health care professional who diagnosis, treat and assess sexual concerns in their patients.

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among other data:
      sex in public with threat of discovery 78pct
      anal sex 72pct
      threesome sex 48pct
      annilingus 50pct
      BDSM 38pct
      sex in the office: 32pct

Toddlers prefer those who win but not when they win by force

Toddlers prefer those who win but not when they win by force. Ashley J. Thomas, Lotte Thomsen, Angela F. Lukowski, Meline Abramyan, Barbara W. Sarnecka. Human Behavior and Evolution Society 31st annual meeting. Boston 2019. http://tiny.cc/aa1w6y

Abstract: Social hierarchies occur across human societies, so all humans must navigate them. Infants can detect when one individual outranks another, but it is unknown whether they approach others based on their social status. This paper presents a series of seven experiments investigating whether toddlers prefer high- or low-ranking individuals. Toddlers aged 21–31 months watched a zero-sum, right-of-way conflict between two puppets, in which one puppet ‘won’ because the other yielded the way. Of the 23 toddlers who participated, 20 reached for the puppet that ‘won’. However, when one puppet used force and knocked the other puppet down in order to win, 18 out of 22 toddlers reached for the puppet that ‘lost’. Five follow-up experiments ruled out alternative explanations for these results. The findings suggest that humans, from a very early age, not only recognize relative status but also incorporate status into their decisions about whether to approach or avoid others, in a way that differs from our nearest primate relatives.

Liberalism may result from relatively unpredictable childhood, with personality types optimized for short-term relationships, risk-taking, novelty, & creativity; conservatives may be suited for stable surroundings with low risk payoffs

Ideology, attachment, and life history strategy: Cultural conservatism may be an ontogenetic product of high-predictability niches. Connor Wood, Jonathan Morgan, John Shaver. Human Behavior and Evolution Society 31st annual meeting. Boston 2019. http://tiny.cc/aa1w6y

Attachment theory and life history theory may offer useful tools for investigating the psychological bases of ideological commitments. Thornhill and Fincher (2007) found that conservatives exhibited more secure attachment styles than liberals and reported more positive childhood memories, suggesting that liberal orientations result from relatively unpredictable childhood environments that produce personality types optimized for short-term relationships, risk-taking, novelty, and creativity. Conservatives, by contrast, may be suited for stable surroundings with low risk payoffs. However, other studies have questioned these results (Koleva and Rip 2009; Gaziano 2017). Therefore, we set out in a preregistered study to conceptually replicate Thornhill and Fincher’s 2007 findings in light of life history theory (Del Guidice, 2009). Individuals with “fast” life histories pursue low-investment reproductive strategies. “Slow” LH strategies are characterized by more parental and relational investment. In a sample of >600, we found that certain kinds of ideological conservatism – specifically cultural conservatism– were strongly associated with stable childhood backgrounds and with slow life-history variables, corroborating Thornhill and Fincher’s interpretation. However, the association between conservatism and attachment style held only for female subjects. Conservatism may be an adaptation for stable cultural niches, but attachment style may not be the critical variable.

What do people think diseases look, smell, sound, taste, and feel like?

What do people think diseases look, smell, sound, taste, and feel like? Josh Ackerman, Wilson Merrell, Soyeon Choi. Human Behavior and Evolution Society 31st annual meeting. Boston 2019. http://tiny.cc/aa1w6y

Abstract: Humans have basic five senses: sight, smell, sound, taste, and touch. These five senses help us perceive and navigate the world, enabling us to approach potential rewards and avoid imminent threats. In this study, we examined how people believe they use the five sensory modalities to detect an important environmental threat, the risk of infectious diseases. Using a fully within-subjects design, 300 participants read a scenario where they imagined a flu outbreak and thus needing to determine whether another person was sick or not. Participants ranked the five senses (sight, smell, sound, taste, touch) in terms of perceived effectiveness in detecting infection and how likely they would be to actually use each of the senses. Rankings of effectiveness and likelihood of use were similar, in the descending order of sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste. Participants’ expected emotional reactions, confidence in their disease-detection abilities, and individual differences in pathogen disgust and perceived vulnerability to disease were also examined. While the existing research has mainly focused on direct and indirect consequences of disease detection, this study provides interesting insights into people’s lay beliefs of the detection process itself.

Contrary to most previous findings, women’s clothing style and grooming did not change according to cycle phase or hormone levels; women may not advertise their fertility with different clothing styles or make-up usage

Probing ovulatory cycle shifts in women’s make-up and clothing style. Julia Stern, Stephanie Rudolph, Lars Penke. Human Behavior and Evolution Society 31st annual meeting. Boston 2019. http://tiny.cc/aa1w6y

The existence of ovulatory cycle shifts in women’s mate preferences and sexual desire has been discussed controversially, highlighting methodological criticism and the need for high powered replication studies. However, there is still a lack of replication studies investigating whether women actually advertise their fertility to signal sexual proceptivity to men, by dressing more attractive (wearing red, sexy or skin revealing clothes) and spending more time and effort in grooming. We addressed this lack of research in a large, pre-registered within-subject study including salivary hormone measures and luteinizing hormone tests. One-hundred-fifty-seven female participants have been photographed in a standardized setting four times across two ovulatory cycles. All photographs were coded on a number of variables for three dimensions: a) clothing color (e.g. wearing red), b) body exposure (e.g. wearing skin revealing clothes), c) grooming (incl. make-up use, hairstyle or accessoires). Multilevel intraindividual comparisons revealed that, contrary to most previous findings, women’s clothing style and grooming did not change according to cycle phase or hormone levels. These results indicate that women may not advertise their fertility with different clothing styles or make-up usage. Hormonal mechanisms and implications for estrus theories will be discussed.