Friday, November 9, 2018

How negative parenting might hamper identity development: spontaneous aggressiveness and personal belief in a just world

How negative parenting might hamper identity development: spontaneous aggressiveness and personal belief in a just world. Jan Hofer & Benedikt Spengler. Self and Identity,

ABSTRACT: Based on studies indicating that identity formation is shaped by perceived negative parenting and personal factors, we hypothesized that negative parenting relates to adolescents’ self-reported spontaneous aggressiveness and their personal belief in a just world and consequently, is associated with problems developing a firm meaningful interpersonal identity. In a series of four studies, we gathered data from 807 German students aged between 13 and 18 years by using two well-validated methods for measuring of identity development (i.e., Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, Study 1; Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale, Studies 2/4). Analyses revealed an indirect link of negative parenting on facets of identity development via spontaneous aggressiveness (Studies 1 and 2). Based on findings that negative parenting was associated with spontaneous aggressiveness via personal belief in a just world (Study 3), analyses conducted in Study 4 indicate a two-staged indirect link of negative parenting on facets of identity development through personal belief in a just world and spontaneous aggressiveness. Above all, problems in the development of and satisfaction with personal meaningful identity commitments could be verified. Implications for research on interpersonal identity formation are discussed.

KEYWORDS: Perceived negative parenting, interpersonal identity, spontaneous aggressiveness, personal belief in a just world

Self-control has largely been thought to exclusively promote socially-desirable behaviors; but consistent with newer models, it is equally plausible that, under some circumstances, could increase obedient aggression

The Intricacies of the Pursuit of Higher Self-Control. Liad Uziel. Current Directions in Psychological Science,

Abstract: Self-control is a central human capacity associated with a wide range of personal and societal advantages. In view of its benefits, increasing self-control among children and adults has been advocated as a remedy to many of society’s illnesses. This approach is evident in the popular media, as well as in educating and governing agencies, and has subsequently taken root in the general public. The present article advocates a broader approach by noting some of the downsides of the pursuit of high self-control. It does so by highlighting often-ignored issues relating to (a) uncertainties about the nature of self-control, (b) nuances concerning the benefits of high self-control, and (c) undesirable implications of wanting more self-control. The conclusion is that research on self-control should deal not only with the benefits of self-control but also with the costs associated with advocating, wanting, and even having high self-control. This approach would provide society with informed knowledge about potential side effects of one of the most powerful psychological solutions to its ailments.

Keywords: self-control, self-regulation, desire for self-control, overcontrol, public policy

Check also “Thou Shalt Kill”: Practicing self-control supports adherence to personal values when asked to aggress. Thomas F. Denson et al. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (2016),
Abstract: Poor self-control is a root cause of aggression and criminality. But people can improve their self-control through repetitive practice. Because self-control involves acting in accordance with personal values, practicing self-control can promote attainment of value-consistent goals. The present research tested the hypothesis that practicing self-control could both decrease and increase obedient aggression. In Experiment 1, relative to the active control group, participants who practiced self-control were more hesitant to engage in mock violence (e.g., “cutting” the experimenter's throat with a rubber knife), especially for participants high in dispositional empathy. In Experiment 2, practicing self-control increased obedience to kill insects, but only among participants who felt little moral responsibility for their actions. There was a trend for decreased killing among participants who feltmorally responsible for their actions. Our findings suggest thatwhen asked to behave aggressively, self-control promotes adherence to personal values, which may or may not fuel aggression.
To date, self-control has largely been thought to exclusively promote socially-desirable behaviors. For instance, studies showing that self-control reduces reactive aggression strongly support this notion (Denson et al., 2011; Finkel et al., 2009; Moffitt et al., 2011). However, consistent with newer models of self-control (Fujita, 2011; Inzlicht, Schmeichel et al., 2014), it is equally plausible that under some circumstances, SCT could increase obedient aggression

Self-curiosity, the psychology-drive to explore one's inner functioning, is borne out of dissatisfaction with one’s own psychological world

Self-curiosity: Definition and measurement. Filippo Aschieri, Ilaria Durosini & Justin Dean Smith. Self and Identity,

ABSTRACT: This article frames self-curiosity – the curiosity that people have about their inner world – within the overarching construct of curiosity and describes its psychological correlates identified in the empirical literature. The construct of self-curiosity is defined as one’s tendency and interest in exploring their inner functioning. It can be assessed through self-report on the Self-Curiosity Attitude-Interest Scale (SCAI), which comprises two positively correlated factors: (1) Attitude toward Self-Curiosity and (2) Interest in Increasing Knowledge of Self. Research provides evidence of the nomological network of self-curiosity, its relationship with other personality traits, and how it varies among different levels of intelligence, between cultures, and across stages of life development. The principal results on self-curiosity are summarized and current research directions are discussed.

KEYWORDS: Self-curiosity, curiosity about self, curiosity, self, psychological assessment

Harm, even when it appears to be unintentional, may augment mind perception for robotic & nearly human entities, at least as long as it is perceived to elicit pain

Avatars in Pain: Visible Harm Enhances Mind Perception in Humans and Robots. Aleksandra Swiderska, Dennis Küster. Perception,

Abstract: Previous research has shown that when people read vignettes about the infliction of harm upon an entity appearing to have no more than a liminal mind, their attributions of mind to that entity increased. Currently, we investigated if the presence of a facial wound enhanced the perception of mental capacities (experience and agency) in response to images of robotic and human-like avatars, compared with unharmed avatars. The results revealed that harmed versions of both robotic and human-like avatars were imbued with mind to a higher degree, irrespective of the baseline level of mind attributed to their unharmed counterparts. Perceptions of capacity for pain mediated attributions of experience, while both pain and empathy mediated attributions of abilities linked to agency. The findings suggest that harm, even when it appears to have been inflicted unintentionally, may augment mind perception for robotic as well as for nearly human entities, at least as long as it is perceived to elicit pain.

Keywords: mind perception, pain, empathy, harm, robots, anthropomorphism

Google, Tell Me. Is He Gay? Masculinity, Homophobia, and Gendered Anxieties in Google Search Queries About Sexuality: Many less queries about sisters, daughters, wives, girlfriends

Mishel, Emma, Tristan Bridges, and Mònica L. Caudillo. 2018. “Google, Tell Me. Is He Gay?: Masculinity, Homophobia, and Gendered Anxieties in Google Search Queries About Sexuality.” SocArXiv. November 7. doi:10.31235/

Abstract: How can we really know how accepting people are of same-sex sexual identities? Responses in surveys and interviews are prone to social desirability bias. In this article, we offer a new proxy for this concern: the relative prevalence of Google search queries demonstrating concern over gay/lesbian sexual identities. Theories of gender have long suggested a strong relationship between masculinity and heterosexuality. Likewise, sociological research shows a consistent pattern of femininity being devalued culturally, particularly when enacted by boys and men. And, scholarship on the relationship between gender and sexuality suggests that boys’ and men’s heterosexuality is more precarious compared to that of girls and women. Using Google Trends analysis, we illustrate what these theories posit on a larger scale than previous research has been able to establish. Specifically, we show that gender-specific Google search queries concerned with the status of individuals as gay/lesbian show patterned bias toward masculine searches. We put these search data into context by comparing search frequencies with other popular searches associated with the gender-specific statuses we analyze, and argue that these data offer a new kind of support for three interrelated theories of gender and sexual identity and inequality.

Both extreme political attitudes, albeit more pronounced for right/conservative than for left/liberal attitude, are associated with higher average offspring number compared to intermediate attitudes

Political attitude and fertility: Is there a selection for the political extreme? Martin Fieder, Susanne Huber. Front. Psychol. | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02343

Abstract: There is growing evidence that human ideology as well as social and political attitudes also have a genetic basis. In case of some genetic predisposition of political attitude, an association with fertility would be a hint of potential selection on political ideology. We therefore investigated on the basis of men and women that have completed, respectively, almost completed reproduction, of three different data sets (the World Value Survey 1981-2014 covering a wide range of countries and developmental levels, n = 152,380, the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe of 2005, n = 65,912, and the General Social Survey of the USA 1972-2014, n ~ 6200) whether political attitude is associated with number of children.
Overall, in the world wide survey, both extreme political attitudes, albeit more pronounced for right/conservative than for left/liberal attitude, are associated with higher average offspring number compared to intermediate attitudes. If countries are analyzed separately, however, the picture is inconsistent, and in most countries, the association is non-significant. In the European and the US-survey, only the political right is associated with above average number of children. The time series of US data from 1972 to 2014 shows that at least in the US-sample, this pattern emerged during the 1990s: in the 1970s and 1980s, also in the US-sample both political extremes had a reproductive advantage, which vanished for left wing individuals during the 1990s.
From an evolutionary perspective, we are not able to draw final conclusions as the association between political attitude and reproduction varies across countries and time. Nonetheless, the overall pattern suggests that in human evolutionary history, both left and right political attitudes may have conveyed fitness benefits so that both attitudes have been kept in the population.

Keywords: evolution, Number of children, political attitude, Behavior Genetics, Liberal - Conservative

LGBT Adolescents: Attempts by parents/caregivers or being sent to therapists & religious leaders for "conversion" are linked to depression, suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, less educational attainment, & less weekly income

Parent-Initiated Sexual Orientation Change Efforts With LGBT Adolescents: Implications for Young Adult Mental Health and Adjustment. Caitlin Ryan et al. Journal of Homosexuality,

ABSTRACT: Studies of adults who experienced sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) have documented a range of health risks. To date, there is little research on SOCE among adolescents and no known studies of parents’ role related to SOCE with adolescents. In a cross-sectional study of 245 LGBT White and Latino young adults (ages 21–25), we measured parent-initiated SOCE during adolescence and its relationship to mental health and adjustment in young adulthood. Measures include being sent to therapists and religious leaders for conversion interventions as well as parental/caregiver efforts to change their child’s sexual orientation during adolescence. Attempts by parents/caregivers and being sent to therapists and religious leaders for conversion interventions were associated with depression, suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, less educational attainment, and less weekly income. Associations between SOCE, health, and adjustment were much stronger and more frequent for those reporting both attempts by parents and being sent to therapists and religious leaders, underscoring the need for parental education and guidance.

KEYWORDS: Sexual orientation, LGBT youth, reparative therapy, conversion therapy, sexual orientation change efforts, suicidality, depression