Tuesday, April 12, 2022

Higher inequality creates an environment of restlessness in which both the poor and the rich feel obliged to seek wealth and status, albeit for different reasons

Restless in an Unequal World: Economic Inequality Fuels the Desire for Wealth and Status. Zhechen Wang, Jolanda Jetten, Niklas K. Steffens. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, April 3, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672221083747

Abstract: Building on theories explaining social outcomes of economic inequality, our research examined the psychological impact of inequality on the desire for wealth and status. Our studies provide both experimental (Studies 1 and 3, Ns = 321 and 596) and correlational (Study 2; N = 141,477 from 73 countries and regions) evidence that higher inequality heightens people’s desire for wealth and status. Notably, this effect of inequality on desire is independent of the influence of societal wealth. Moreover, our results reveal social class differences in why inequality fuels motivations: Lower-class individuals are more likely to respond to higher inequality with a heightened desire reflecting self-improvement concerns, whereas upper-class individuals are more likely to respond with a heightened desire reflecting social comparison concerns. These findings suggest that higher inequality creates an environment of restlessness in which both the poor and the rich feel obliged to seek wealth and status, albeit for different reasons.

Keywords: economic inequality, social class, desire for wealth, desire for status


The overall effect size of having same-sex parents on the developmental outcomes of the children was positive and significantly different from that of heterosexual parents

A meta-analysis examining the relationship between parents’ sexual orientation and children's developmental outcomes. Mario I. Su├írez,Elizabeth W. Stackhouse, Jeffrey Keese & Christopher G. Thompson. Journal of Family Studies, Apr 6 2022. https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2022.2060121

Abstract: Despite the Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Supreme Court decision allowing same-sex marriage, the current political climate has emboldened state legislatures in the United States to push for anti-LGBTQ adoption legislation, some citing that LGBTQ couples have a negative effect on children. This meta-analysis synthesized data from 32 studies on 6 developmental outcomes (child gender role behaviour, gender identity, sexual orientation, cognitive function, psychological adjustment, and quality of parent–child relationship). The overall effect size of having same-sex parents on the developmental outcomes of the children was positive and significantly different from that of heterosexual parents. Moderator analyses found that location, socioeconomic status, type of relationship, date of publication, and the child's sexual preference were significant. We provide implications for practitioners and policy, as well as recommendations for future research in this area.

Keywords: Meta-analysissame-sex parentsLGBQqueerdevelopmentalsexual orientation



39,606 working adults in 49 countries: The self-employed consistently exhibit stronger religiosity of behaving, bonding, and belonging than paid workers

Individual Religiosity and Career Choice: Does Cultural Religiosity Moderate the Relationship? Abu H. Ayob, Shifa Mohd Nor. Cross-Cultural Research, April 6, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1177/10693971221080622

Abstract: Although research on the influence of religion on entrepreneurial entry has progressed substantially, the conceptual and empirical approaches are still far from being conclusive. To advance, we utilize the big our religious dimensions to examine how internal (believing and behaving) and external (bonding and belonging) religiosity may affect the propensity of individuals to be self-employed rather than paid employees. Together, we test if the country’s level of religiosity moderates the relationship. Drawing on the recent World Values Survey Wave 7 (2017–2021), we analyzed data from a sample of 39,606 working adults in 49 countries. In general, we found that the self-employed consistently exhibit stronger religiosity of behaving, bonding, and belonging than paid workers. However, the moderating effects suggest that religiosity at the country level prevails over individual religiosity—consistent with the idea that social environment is a more dominant factor even in individual decision making.

Keywords: religiosity, big four religious dimensions, cultural religiosity, career choice, self-employment, World Values Survey