Saturday, February 3, 2018

Evidence for Sex Ratio Adjustment in Humans

It’s a Boy! Evidence for Sex Ratio Adjustment in Humans. Kristen J. Navara. Chapter in Choosing Sexes pp 13-31. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-71271-0_2

Abstract: Since the beginning of human existence, there has been a keen interest in the factors that influence whether a boy or girl is produced and the development of practices or methods to control it. While the overall natal ratio of boys to girls produced by humans hovers at a stable 1.06 boys for every girl, there is now evidence that these sex ratios vary substantially among populations, in response to severe life events, in conjunction with the position and timing of intercourse, and even with ambient temperature. In this chapter, I compile the evidence implicating many of these factors as modulators of offspring sex ratios in humans and discuss how these influences may interact to determine whether a boy or a girl is produced.

The extraverted and individuals high on agreeablemenss are less likely to have negative affective evaluations of the opposing party

It’s Personal: The Big Five Personality Traits and Negative Partisan Affect in Polarized U.S. Politics. Steven W. Webster. American Behavioral Scientist, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0002764218756925?journalCode=absb

Abstract: One of the most important developments within the American electorate in recent years has been the rise of affective polarization. Whether this is due to notions of group-based conflict or ideological disagreement, Americans increasingly dislike the opposing political party and its supporters. I contribute to this growing literature on affective polarization by showing how differences in individuals’ Big Five personality traits are predictive of both whether an individual dislikes the opposing party and the degree to which they express this hostility. Modeling negative affect toward the opposing party as a two-stage process, I find that Extraverted individuals are less likely to have negative affective evaluations of the opposing party. Additionally, conditional on disliking the opposing party, my results indicate that higher levels of Agreeableness lowers the degree to which individuals dislike the out-party. Moreover, these relationships are substantively stronger than common sociodemographic predictors such as age, race, and educational attainment.

Keywords: personality, negative partisanship, affective polarization

The Relationship Between Sexualized Appearance and Perceptions of Women’s Competence and Electability

The Relationship Between Sexualized Appearance and Perceptions of Women’s Competence and Electability. Julia K. Smith et al. Sex Roles, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-018-0898-4

Abstract: Women do not have a uniform or standardized “suit” to wear in the workplace so they must make daily decisions about what to wear. Some propose that women should dress in a sexualized way to gain power and influence, but sexy attire is related to lower perceptions of competence for women in leadership positions. We explored the effect of revealing or conservative attire on perceptions of women’s leadership competence. We also used eye-tracker technology to determine whether looking at sexualized body parts (i.e., breasts, hemline) was related to lower perceptions of leadership competence and electability. A female candidate for a student senate presidency at a U.S. university wearing revealing clothing was perceived by 191 college students as less honest and trustworthy, electable, and competent than one wearing conservative clothing. Sexualized body parts were looked at longer when the candidate was wearing revealing clothing compared to conservative clothing. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicated that the revealing clothing led participants to gaze at sexualized body parts, which, in turn, led to perceiving the candidate as less honest/trustworthy, which lowered their evaluations of her competence and electability. These findings suggest that viewing a woman in a sexy outfit can lead others to stare more at her body and make negative evaluations of her personal attributes. This finding has implications for the choices women make in workplace and leadership contexts.

Unsocial subjects vs social ones: No significant differences in self-esteem, social comparisons, emotional regulation, self-harm, suicidal ideations, quality of relations with others, anxiety sensitivity, social anhedonia or depression

Does it matter when we want to Be alone? Exploring developmental timing effects in the implications of unsociability. Robert J. Coplan, Laura L. Ooi, Danielle Baldwin. New Ideas in Psychology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2018.01.001

Highlights
•    Unsociability refers to a non-fearful preference for solitude.
•    We discuss various approaches to conceptualizing and measuring this construct.
•    A theoretical model of developmental timing effects for unsociability is proposed.
•    Links between unsociability and well-being may vary across development.

Abstract: Unsociability is a characteristic that refers to individual differences in the non-fearful preference for solitude. There is continued debate pertaining to the potential costs and benefits of solitude for our well-being. In this essay, we consider various approaches to the conceptualization and measurement of unsociability, and explore its implications for socio-emotional functioning. Further, we propose a somewhat speculative theoretical model of developmental timing effects for unsociability, which postulates non-linear variations in the implications of a heightened preference for solitude from early childhood to emerging adulthood. After considering the existing empirical support for this model, we outline remaining topics of concerns and suggest the most pressing directions for future research.

Keywords: Unsociability; Solitude; Social withdrawal; Preference for solitude; Developmental timing

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Unsocial subjects vs social ones: No significant differences in self-esteem, social comparisons, emotional regulation, self-harm, suicidal ideations, quality of relations with others, anxiety sensitivity, social anhedonia or depression.

My question is: why then there is such apprehension in parents with child's unsociabilty? I trust the parents more than the researchers, something is not being captured in these samples we are studying.

Disclosure: I am quite unsocial.